БЕЗПЕКА ДЕРЖАВИ - БЕЗПЕКА НАРОДУ

ФАХОВІ ВИДАННЯ

ФАХОВІ ВИДАННЯ

 
ІНФОРМАЦІЙНА БЕЗПЕКА ЛЮДИНИ, СУСПІЛЬСТВА, ДЕРЖАВИ
 

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THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL BASIS FOR ENSURING
INFORMATION SECURITY OF PERSON, SOCIETY AND STATE


Gorovyi V. M.   State and nation in the information society
State and nation in the information society

The article examines the legal prospect of statehood dynamics t as guarantor of national development under conditions of globalization and informatization processes activation.

The aim of the article is consideration of modern state role in national development, organizational and legal perspectives of ensuring national information space transformation for the benefit of the development of sovereign Ucraine.

Since in modern social practice there is an actual delay in response to external and internal information challenges to national development that grow and multiply under the influence of informatization and globalization intensification process approaches to law-making and law enforcement activities of the state require fundamental renewal.

With information technology development, communication opportunities for computerized part of the society, Internet economy and politics development the appropriate Internet legislation as well as law enforcement structures that ensure the compliance of this legislationt should be in progress

At the stage of new information challenges, modern state even without being the leading globalizer can respond by system of organizational and legal measures on the new level of self-organization, structural transformation, development of modern information communications system that provide new vitality of this public institution.


Dovgan О. D. – Candidate of Judicial Sciences, Senior Researcher

Some aspects of the study methodology of the information security issues

This article examines the issue of methodological foundations of information security problems study at the disciplinary level based on the theory of security systems and the interaction of both. It is the interaction of systems, which are information bases, communications and threatening information constructions that can start up the process of system disintegration. The security is defined just by complex of information system quality estimation criteria.

In general, information security as a branch of science in compliance with its subject depth exploration develops its own specific methods of research and a system of techniques and principles promoting effective development of research process.

The article deals with techniques such as modeling, expert methods, methods of linear and dynamic programming, systems analysis, the method of brainstorming, forecasting etc.

The practice of information security provision indicates that there are problems in determining the order on the basis of a large number of alternatives. The problems classification allows to determine basic techniques needed to solve a wide range of poorly structured and unstructured problems with many criteria by using the method of division of alternatives into groups according to their featurs or determining the best alternative. Nature, scale and complexity of the subject and information about its development as well as depth indicator of prognostication are of primary importance for method selection.


Talalay D. V.,   Momotenko T. D. – Candidate of Judicial Sciences

Classification of money laundering: current situation and prevention methods

The article provides analysis of up-to-date national and international practices and methods of money laundering prevention and counteraction. The authors offer ways of upgrading both law enforcement and regulatory authorities activities when the issue of money laundering is considered.

Analysis of the recent research and publications demonstrated that further scientific advancement of this problem is a matter of current interest.

Therefore, the aim of the article is to conduct the analysis of current approaches to money laundering classification as well as to work out a number of recommendations to improve money laundering prevention and counteraction activities.

The authors  came to the conclusion that further development of national legislation to prevent money-laundering  and immediate  formation of the Anti-Corruption Bureau of Ukraine are of paramount importance as this will allow to speed up significantly Ukraine's integration into international cooperation system to fight organized crimes including money laundering and terrorism financing.

On the national level, the efficiency of money laundering preventive activities depends on coordinated interaction of law enforcement and regulatory authorities. Money laundering prevention involves continuous analysis and generalization of money laundering methods, means and techniques, as well as the disclosure of this information to the reporting entities, law enforcement and other state bodies responsible for money laundering and terrorism financing prevention.


Tikhomyrov O. O. – Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Senior Researcher

Information violations: legal-theoretical conception

The current legal science actively uses the terms, reflecting wrongful acts in some way related to information: information offenses, computer offenses, information technology offenses, information security offenses, cyber offenses etc. Thus there is no single universally accepted theoretical construction as well as there is no approved definition of the notion ‘information offense’, it’s not decided what its objective criteria and allocation among other offenses are.

The results of the genuine situation and the available scientific developments of various types of legal sciences analysis, especially of information law, make it possible to position norms in the law system that define information offenses as a complex legal institution that provides various types of legal responsibility (administrative, criminal, civil, etc.). Thus the main criteria to distinguish information offenses is the presence of information components in their structural composition: 1) as the object of offense – in case the wrongful act counters information relationships or subject of offense – information, information tools and systems; 2) as an element of the objective aspect of the offense which indicates the method, means of a wrongful act –in case it was committed with the employment of information technologies and tools.

The main types of information offenses are: media and information resources offenses; information space offences; the information infrastructure offences; other offenses committed with the employment of information technologies.


STATE POLICY OF UKRAINE IN THE FIELD
OF THE INFORMATION SECURITY OF PERSON, SOCIETY AND STATE


Maruschak A. I. – Doctor of Judicial Sciences, Professor, Solodka O. M. – Candidate of Judicial Sciences, Senior Researcher

Some aspects of state information policy formation and its realization in modern environment

This article explores the features of the formation and implementation of the state information policy of Ukraine in modern conditions, factors influencing this process, its deficiencies and possible options for improvement.

In view of our study, it can be argued that under an information burst in the society the role of valid and adequate state information policy increases. It aims to satisfy and protect balanced information interests of the state, society and man.

In general, the scientific approaches to the content of the notion «state information policy»  varies from the global management of information sphere to the contracted understanding of the «information policy» notion as a process ensuring  mass-media activity.

At this stage, Ukraine is in great  need of effective information policy, which should take into account the objective realities not only of the modern information sphere, but of the security as well, because information is used now as a tool of unlawful and negative impact on Ukrainian society.

However, the authors stressed the point that the legal and structural aspects  of the state information policy should be improved. For one thing, the problem concerns the adoption of legislation that would define the concept of "state information policy", its main components, etc., for another thing, you should resolve the problem and determine the authorized functions of the public bodies in this area, including the Ministry of Information Policy, as well as the coordination of public information policy of Ukraine in general.


Panchenko V. M. – Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Senior Researcher

Structural and functional analysis of countering the information aggression

Over the last year in order to counteract information aggression of Russia against Ukraine changes to national legislation in the field of information security were made, some central government bodies were reorganized, cooperation with NGOs in the field of information technology was established. As a result the redistribution of powers between different bodies assigned to protect the Ukrainian information space was made. Thus, the current state of public bodies entrusted with the task to counteract information aggression requires scientific research.

The purpose of the article is to determine public authorities entrusted with the task of counteracting information aggression and their new functions by analyzing the existing legal framework of Ukraine.

Analysis of the national regulatory and leagal framework indicates that now the task of  counteracting  information aggression entrusted to:

  • government agencies that shape information policy: Ministry of Information Policy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, State Committee for Television and Radio Broadcasting of Ukraine;
  • regulatory and supervisory agencies in the field of broadcasting and  telecommunications: National Council of Ukraine on Television and Radio Broadcasting, National Commission for State Regulation of Communications and Informatization;
  • institutions of security and defense sector: Ministry of Defense of Ukraine, Security Service of Ukraine, State Service for Special Communications and Information Protection of Ukraine.

However, today the state has lost the function to expertise information products containing incitement to breach constitutional order, territorial integrity, propaganda of war, fascism, national and religious hatred used by Russia in information aggression against Ukraine.

It is necessary to distribute powers between newly established Ministry of Information Policy of Ukraine and State Committee for Television and Radio Broadcasting of Ukraine (for the purpose to develop information policy and functioning of government electronic information resources) and Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine (regarding distribution of socially important information abroad) .

The growing influence of mass media in the structure of social and political communication and transferring state broadcasters under authority of National Public Broadcasting Company of Ukraine requires establishing fruitful cooperation of public bodies with civil society for information aggression counteracting.

There is the problem of security and defense bodies activity coordination in counteracting information aggression, so we recommend to put this function on Information Analytical Center of National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine.

Further research will be directed to solving these problems.


Pohrebytskyi M. L. – Candidate of State Administration

Lustration and personnel policy in Ukraine: regularities and contradictions of their implementation in the system of special-mission law enforcement agencies

This article deals with personnel policy peculiarities and lustration process of law enforcement bodies of special purpose of Ukraine. The author analyzes investigations and publications on this subject matter in general. He studies legal, political, philosophy, and social scientists existing viewpoints of procedural grounds and consequences of authorities cleaning. The author examines patterns and contradictions in the implementation of lustration legislation and personnel policy in law enforcement agencies of special purpose. Making use of historical and legal facts and approaches the scientist tries to develop arguments for the grounds and procedures of lustration implementation. The legal status of persons coming within lustration and grounds for lustration exemption persons of certain categories are considered. Scientist analyzes stages of the Law of Ukraine "On cleaning power," he researches existing viewpoints of known lawyers, human rights activists and analyses available expert opinions, commentaries to various versions of the draft law. Legal and historical approaches were applied. Historical experience of similar legislative activities and previous experience of special services cleaning of foreign states were studied.

The author stresses the need to take into account legal facts of self-cleaning of the national security service officers who took the Oath of fealty to the Ukrainian people and proved their long-term loyalty and selfless work according to this oath. The article emphasizes the obligation of new personnel policy to ensure principles of legitimacy, transparency and progressiveness in national special services.


Blahodarnyi A. M. – Candidate of Judicial Sciences, Associate Professor

Рecularites of the application of administrative preventive measures in the information sector under the conditions of hybrid war

There is no definition of the ‘hybrid warfare’ term in international legal instruments. This concept does not exist either in Military Doctrine of Ukraine that designates national system of governing views on causes, nature and character of modern military conflicts.

The scientific literature defines the ‘hybrid warfare term as war of utterly different types and methods of warfare used in a coordinated manner to achieve common goals. Typical components of hybrid war are:

– classical warfare techniques ( military men in uniform, military equipment etc.);

– irregular armed groups (insurgents, terrorists, guerrillas etc.);

–information and cyber war.

For both military and information components of hybrid war is very important to take preventive measures, including measures of administrative warning to combat illegal activities.

Measures of administrative warning can be defined as a set of organizational, psychological, physical and other instruments designed to detect and prevent crime, to guarantee state security, public order and personal security.

These instruments are diverse, used in various areas of public life and by different agencies (police, state border protection bodies, income and charges bodies, Security Service of Ukraine, control and supervisory authorities (public inspections) etc.).

The main measures of administrative warning eligible to be applied by law enforcement officials of Ukraine to counteract offenses in the information sector should comprise such measures as: prevention of offenses; examination (personal examination, examination of personal luggage, vehicles, various objects); official warning hereof the inadmissibility of illegal behaviour; visiting companies, institutions and organizations; entering land, residential and other private premises of citizens; submit proposals to eliminate causes and conditions that abet offenses.


Zhuravel V. I. – Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor Shepeta O. V. – Candidate of Judicial Sciences

Estimate of management efficiency in the protection of classified information

This article considers five areas of methodological approaches: logical and management, statistical and mathematical, financial and economic, social and psychological, specific and official (production activity).

For each of the areas of methodological approaches there are five groups of performance criteria directive, priority, overall, additional, integrated.

The article suggests the following indicators of management efficiency estimate: human, financial, information and other resources; technical facilities; information and computer technology; software, etc. (social and psychological aspects of the situation are considered).

The article considers general requirements and recommendations of general management (Mueller’s number, Hreykunas’ criterion, linear-functional type of relationships and so on.), as well as ensuring positive motivation carrying out the duties and psychological climate.


Kravchenko O. M. – Post-graduate Student of the Administrative, Financial and Economic Law Department of the Academy of Labor, Social Relations and Tourism

Foreign experience in the legal protection of trade secrets 

Protection from competitive secret service, in other words  commercial secrets of business entities and its protection becomes the first priority because of  the growing economic competition in the conditions of market relations development in Ukraine. The development of economic competition, the need to gain advantages in the market set the task to the business entities to protect commercial secrets by legal means.

The current legislation does not provide for special measures of protection from competitive secret service, does not specify a particular mechanism to implement the rights of commercial secrets holders. The weakness of the current legislation creates difficulties and problems for business entities that possess commercial secrets, it limits the implementation and protection of their right to such information. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the national legislation on the basis of the experience of foreign countries with advanced economies.

The research analysis. Detailed analysis of the normative legal acts of foreign countries with advanced economies is a basis of this article. The analysis allowed us to ascertain the significant gaps in the legislation of Ukraine in the sphere of commercial secret and the imperfection of the practice of public authorities in this field.

The relevance of the analysis of the legal protection of commercial secrets has increased in connection with the prospects of Ukraine's accession to the European Union, which requires the compliance with the Agreement on commercial use of intellectual property TRIPS, in particular, with regard to commercial secrets.

The aim of the research is to examine theoretical and practical issues on legal regulation of relations concerning the protection of the commercial information in foreign countries. On this basis, the main purpose of this article is to point out possible directions of the implementation in national practice the experience of foreign countries in the sphere of commercial lsecrets protection .

CONCLUSOIN. Promising areas of the scientific research is the analysis of foreign experience on commercial secrets legal regulation with the view of its possible implementation in the legislation of Ukraine


Shlapachenko V. M. – Candidate of Judicial Sciences, Senior Researcher

Espionage as activity to get information

With the development of inter-state relations and sharply increased competition between the states the issue to protect the top secret information which gives certain benefits to the country, and sometimes secure its very existence, became the matter of vital importance. This factor  brought  into life the legislation  prohibiting   espionage,  as a form of reconnaissance aimed at  collecting such information.

Since early Middle Ages and almost to the end of the XIX century this information concerned only the military sphere (the number of troops, their organization, armament, maintenance, etc.). Later, with the development of public relations and state institutions some production technologies and scientific discoveries that gained an advantage over its neighbors began to assume the status of secret, but the information that could be used effectively in the military sphere, as military way of redistribution of territories, spheres of influence and sales markets , had been of high priority for a long time.

The defining features of espionage are:

- it’s a component of intelligence activities, with the purpose of getting secret information (state secrets) that is professionally protected;

- illegal  hand over (illegal ways of collecting the illicit transfer) of classified information;

-it’s is committed in the interests of the recipients of a data transfer – foreign countries (organizations) that are the sponsors of the activities and users of the information;

 -it’s  banned by the legislation of the state - the owner of the classified information;

 -it  causes  or  threatens to cause damage to the vital interests of the state ( its complete and timely implementation) in areas of the activity connected with the circulation of classified information.

truments are diverse, used in various areas of public life and by different agencies (police, state border protection bodies, income and charges bodies, Security Service of Ukraine, control and supervisory authorities (public inspections) etc.).

The main measures of administrative warning eligible to be applied by law enforcement officials of Ukraine to counteract offenses in the information sector should comprise such measures as: prevention of offenses; examination (personal examination, examination of personal luggage, vehicles, various objects); official warning hereof the inadmissibility of illegal behaviour; visiting companies, institutions and organizations; entering land, residential and other private premises of citizens; submit proposals to eliminate causes and conditions that abet offenses.


Hryhoriev V. I., the Candidate of Juridical Sciences

THE TECHNOLOGY OF MODERN INFORMATION-PSYCHOLOGICAL WARFARE/strong>

In the information society the information-psychological warfare is an integral part of political relations and the main tool of political coercion and achievement of political goals. The information-psychological warfare is a factor, which may significantly change the orientation of the geo-political processes and relations in the information society. It also may lead to the shift in the geopolitical center of attraction of national interests related to the subjects of geopolitical competition in the information sector of the countries, which are leaders in the development of information and telecommunication technologies; countries which are controlling strategically important routes of information transmission and basic information flows, used in their own interests. Moreover, the consequences of actions and strikes of information-psychological warfare can change the structure of the information space (such as stream routes and position of information flows units of gravity, as well as the priority and monopoly in the development and implementation of advanced information and telecommunication technologies of some subjects of geopolitical competition as to others). It can result in alienation of the territory of the state and the redistribution of other types of strategic resources. These changes will inevitably lead to changes in the overall stable picture of the geopolitical relationships between the subjects of the geopolitical competition and upset the balance of geopolitical interests that will necessarily affect the security status of each of the countries and territories under the consideration.


Dereko V. N., Candidate of Political Sciences

SOME ASPECTS OF INFORMATION SECURITY

Nowadays information possession enables the definite subject to control the solution of many problems of the international community. On the one hand, information has become the negative factor, which can lead to emergencies, large-scale accidents, military conflicts (including defeats) and even disrupt state governance. On the other hand, the effective utilization of information helps to develop all spheres of the state functioning, including a separate object, and eventually leads to significant positive results of its activity.

Possession of valuable information makes the authorized subject responsible for its preservation and protection against possible external influence such as various kinds of factors, events and technologies, that can be both intentional and accidental.

It should be mentioned that rapid development of information technologies rises practical importance of information security on a new level. However, it understates the comprehension of the nature of information, forms and methods of its revealing, ways of its influence on the development of the society, state and the object of information security on the whole.

The «nformation security» concept includes: objects of information security, threats to information security objects and their protection, based on an array of forces, means, methods and ways of information security.

The main objectives of the relevant subjects to ensure information security are: the elimination of information security installations threats and minimization of possible losses that may be caused by the specific threats.

Actions aimed at the creation of secured information leakage channels (preconditions to its leakage) and directly at the leakage itself can cause information threat to the object.


Ivanchenko Ye. V., candidate of engineerings sciences, associate professor, professor of Safety of information technologies department of the Kyiv National Aviation University
Kozyura V. D., candidate of engineerings sciences, associate professor of National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine
Khoroshko Vo. O., doctor of engineerings sciences, professor, professor of Safety of information technologies department of the Kyiv National Aviation University

QUALITY ESTIMATION OF CONTROL SYSTEM BY INFORMATION RESOURCES SECURITY

A task of determination of quality optimal indexes of control system by information resources security of automated systems is one of the major problems of planning the complex systems of information security. It depends on complication of the similar systems, presence of enormous amount of the varied parameters, complication of calculation of quality indexes. In addition, the determined quality indexes must not only provide the optimality of objective function but also the stability of functioning of the security system in the wide range of external unfavorable influences. In this connection the control system of information security can be examined from position of theory of the systems of automatic control, in which indexes are set as integral quadratic estimations (IQE) of management error. A problem consists in that existent methods of calculating IQE do not take into account the errors of determination of quality indexes, as well as vectorial character of these indexes. On this basis the purpose of this paper is development of algorithms of optimization of parameters of steady control system by protection while using vectorial objective functions.

A forming method of IQE on the basis of certain gravimetric coefficients of estimations of parameters on the desired time of establishment and built-in transmission functions is suggested; the algorithms of calculating IQE are worked out as well as its minimizations in vectorial presentation, using the modified formula of Kac and method of Osrem for the systems of random order; a vectorial penalty function is offered and the algorithm of its calculation is worked out for the reflection of degree of violation of terms of stability of control system by protection on the criterion of Rauss-Gurvitc.


Nechaiev A. A., a post-graduate student of the Institute of special communication and information protection NTUU «KPI»

DETECTING AND ANALYSIS OF TERORIST NETWORKS, BASED ON STATISTICAL DATA OF TELEPHONE CONTACTS

In the fight against the racketeering and terrorism, knowledge about the structure and the organization of criminal networks is of fundamental importance for both the investigation and the development of efficient strategies to prevent and restrain crimes. Intelligence agencies exploit information obtained from the analysis of large amounts of heterogeneous data deriving from various informative sources including the records of phone traffic, the social networks, surveillance data to acquire knowledge about criminal networks and initiate accurate and destabilizing actions.

In this context, visual representation techniques coordinate the exploration of the structure of the network together with the metrics of social network analysis. Nevertheless, the utility of visualization tools may become limited when the dimension and the complexity of the system under analysis grow beyond certain terms. In this paper we show how we employ some interactive visualization techniques to represent criminal and terrorist networks reconstructed from phone traffic data, namely foci, fisheye and geo-mapping network layouts.

These methods allow the exploration of the network through animated transitions among visualization models and local enlargement techniques in order to improve the comprehension of interesting areas. By combining the features of the various visualization models it is possible to gain substantial enhancements with respect to classic visualization models, often unreadable in those cases of great complexity of the network.

In this paper the theoretic model of detecting and analysis of criminal networks, based on statistical data of elephone contacts is introduced.


Savchenko D. S., a post-graduate student of the Nation Academy of SSU

THEORETICAL BASES OF AUTOMATIC PROCESSING OF UNSTRUCTURED TEXTS SYSTEM MODELS FORMATION

The actuality of the theoretical bases of automatic processing of unstructured texts system models formation issue is based on disparity between the accumulated large amounts of unstructured textual information and outdated methods of its processing. For today various approaches to the formalization of natural language are known, but until now they failed to work 3 out the «universal» model that could accurately approximate the natural language and would have been perfectly adapted for different tasks.

As a natural language is characterized by semiotic and semantic multidimensionality (there is no clear link between the sign and its meaning), mathematical and linguistic models of automatic processing of unstructured texts on the semantic evel should take into account this multiplicity.

Unstructured texts characteristics (human natural language rating, the lack of formalized features of structural organization, the presence of accidental errors, content uncertainty) influence the requirements formation for the «ideal» model of subject area.

In particular, considering all this, the models requirements can be defined as follows: 1) the model flexibility as for human languages; 2) the dynamic development of linguistic formation standards; 3) vague merits to compare the text with probable distribution of its results; 4) an automatic formation of word forms base for each language; 5) basing on the rinciples of probability semantics and T. Bayes theorem while analyzing text; 6) formation for each language an «explanation history» of the previous texts on the results of semantic analysis; 7) converse usage of an «explanation history» of the previous texts in the process of the semantic analysis of the new texts.

It is practice that will give the opportunity to different hypothetical models to compare and choose the most simple and accurate among them.


Arkhypov A. E., Professor, Doctor of Technical Sciences, National Academy of the SSU
Arkhipova Ye. O., Associate professor, PhD in Philosophy, National Technical University of Ukraine «Kyiv Polytechnic Institute»

RISK APPROACH FOR DETERMINING LIMIT VALUES OF THE LEVEL OF INVESTMENT IN INFORMATION SECURITY

A way to determine the optimal volume of investment into the system of information security that takes into account the real mechanisms of the development and implementation of information security threats and risks is outlined.

The article analyzes the problem of determination of the maximum amount of investment into the information security. The approach of Gordon-Loeb, which justified the limit investment into the information security is studied. Publications containing materials related to the exposure and the development of this approach are analyzed. It is shown that this approach does not ensure univocal answer. The reason for this is a subjective formal-approximation way of defining the model, which is a basis for the solution. This leads to the multiplicity of possible models and, as the result, to the multiplicity of the solutions.

An approach to solve the problem of determining the amount of investment into the system of information protection, which is based on study of the model of information risks is offered. The formation of its structure and parameters is based on the use of information concerning the actual mechanisms of the development and implementation of information threats, in particular, on economical and value model, which is used to estimate the probability of successful realization of the attack on information system vulnerability.

The paper proposes the estimation of the maximum amount of investment in information security. This investment amounts to 25 % of the value of the protected information resource (or losses arising from the implementation of the threat to this resource). It is noted that the in the case of application of high-performance technology/decisions in the system of information security the level of investment may be reduced to 11–13 %. The prospects of models application based on motivation and resource relations which are typical to the attack-defence situation in the information sphere are considered. Conditions under which protection is ineffective are defined.


Golovin А. Yu., a post-graduate student of the National Technical University of Ukraine, Kyiv Polytechnic Institute

DETECTION OF TCP/IP COVERT CHANNEL BASED ON NAIVE BAYESIAN CLASSIFIER

A covert channel is illicit transfer data, thus breaking the protection policy of a system. A network covert channel is a covert communication by hiding covert messages in to overt network packets. Any shared resource will probably be used as a covert channel. In recent years with the development of various hiding methods, network covert channel has become a new kind of threat for network security. A covert channel is an unintended design within legitimate communication whose motto is to leak information as a part of rudimentary protocols. In fact, most detection systems can detect hidden data in the payload, but struggle to cope with data hidden in the IP and TCP packet headers. The vast number of protocols in internet seems ideal as a high-bandwidth vehicle for covert communication. Due to unwanted and malicious nature of covert channel applications and as it poses a serious security threat to network, it is recommended to detect covert channels efficiently. The huge amount of data transmitted over internet using TCP/IP protocols makes it ideal as carrier for covert information. Covert channel attacks become a potential threat to the internet. Covert channel using unused combination off lag fields of TCP/IP header, reserved fields or modification of some header fields can be easily detected. Detecting covert channels embedded in ISNs and IP IDs are the most difficult covert channels to be detected due to their random behavior. Proposed system detects covert channel in TCP ISN and IP ID, using the NaïveBayesian classifier in more efficient manner.


Kovalchuk S. P., Candidate of Engineering Sciences (Ph.D.), Senior Researcher of ISEE SSU, The Ukrainian scientific and research institute of special equipment and forensic expertise of the Security Service of Ukraine

THE METHOD OF BACK-SOLVING THE TASK OF MULTI-CRITERIA ANALYSIS RELATED TO ORDERING THE TOTALITY OF MULTI-SIGN OBJECTS AS AN APPROACH TO IMPROVE INFORMATION SECURITY OF A PERSON, SOCIETY AND STATE

It is known that the evaluation of the scientific, research organization or institution can be formed by the results of the expertise. Well-known approach to forming such an assessment approach based on the methods of aggregation and ranking of alternatives multi-sign near ideal situations and sequential aggregation states classified.

The above mentioned methods only order (ranks) multi-sign objects on the criterion of the relative proximity to the supposedly best facility, but do not make a priori recommendations and guidelines on the prevention, avoidance and elimination of errors, deficiencies and failures in their activities.

With a given (fixed) index of relative proximity to the supposedly the best object the back solution to ordering multi-sign objects is sought on the basis of mathematically transformed equation index based on relative proximity of ordered scales. Thus, the term additive eliminates the intermediate values within the range of experts and ordered scales and makes it arbitrary within these limits.

The ordering grading scale from the best to the worst value gives special meaning to the leftmost nonzero value, because it determines the best estimate at the selected scale. Therefore, the implementation of arbitrary choice of intermediate and extreme values of fixed selection should be based on the regulating documents. Thus, conditions are created for testing recommendations and guidelines in the legal plane.

Theoretical analysis of decision feedback coupled with the possibility of arbitrary choice of intermediate values allowed to mould the method of back solution of organizing multi-sign objects which has the following steps: 1) relative proximity to the hypothetically best object is given; 2)with mathematically transformed equation index based on relative proximity of ordered scales the initial back solution is found; 3) the initial back solution by implementing arbitrary choice of intermediate and fixed choice of extreme values based on relevant guidance documents is changed; 4) the list of ordered scales of minimum requirements by discarding values to the right of the leftmost nonzero value is got; 5) recommendations and guidelines on the basis of a list of minimum requirements are worked out.

Obvious property of the transformed equation of relative proximity index to impose requirements on the number of assessments scales and relative importance ratio of a particular criterion requires further research.

The practical implementation of the formulated method and the results of further research will help to prevent and combat corruption in the national system and increase the level of information security of a person, society and state.


Korkach Ihor Vitalijovych, senior teacher of National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine
Alekseyenko Artur Serhiyovych, student of National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine

POSSIBILITIES OF AUTOMATED COLLECTION DATA SOFTWARE ABOUT PERSON FROM PUBLIC SOURCES (THE EXAMPLE OF OWN DEVELOPMENT)

Nowadays, a lot of personal information can be obtained from public sources. Experts say that in cyberspace nothing disappears and almost everything is available. It can take a long time analyzing and looking for data using traditional methods. That is why the automated search for necessary information became so popular.

The authors describe a method of creating and developing their own software, which, using the public Internet service is able to quickly and efficiently find and organize data about a person. This software package uses several features to improve the quality of the obtained result from search engines.

Authors have developed the module for analyzing the content of social networks. As it is known, it contains most of the information the average person writes about him/herself. The developed app is able to download not only opened to the public information from the user’s page, but also the hidden one. Special attention was paid to analyzing the activity of a person in a social network, for example, making "likes" and comments in communities. A possibility to analyze the tag of geolocation in the uploaded pictures is outlined as well.


Lutsenko V. M., National Technical University of Ukraine, Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, PTI, Department of Physical and technical protection of information

BIT QUANTUM COMMUNICATIONS IN TELECOMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS

The problem of determining the structure and properties of a propagation medium and electromagnetic waves carrier, which is capable of transferring a bit- quantum of information signals is considered. It provides absolute degree of confidential information protection.

The physical vacuum as a medium of physical fields formation and related processes of their interaction and distribution must be defined in the model representation. For this purpose, the concept of vacuum structural elements – basens is introduced in this article for the first time. This allows you to create a new mechanical, quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic model for largescale and subatomic structure of matter. In fact, it is the construction of a quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic model of subatomic structure of matter, the definition of the properties of elementary particles in order to find the elementary particle itself.

A variety of existing theories as of the structure of the Universe is discussed in brief. No theory or model is perfect, i.e. it can not explain all its phenomena that are observed now, without mutual contradictions. Furthermore, the information «materializes» more actively only on the condition that it is not present on the list of theories and paradigms (a set of fundamental scientific arrangements, conceptions and terms accepted by the scientific community and uniting its members). In fact, it’s necessary to answer the question: do all these theories complement each other or do they compete with each other? This paper proposes reconciliation of the existing theories.

It demonstrates that this is possible if we present a model of physical vacuum in the form of electrons in state and spacious and thermodynamic collapse. This electron is regarded as elementary particle, while a place and role of other known particles, including elementary is revealed. Conditions for a bit-quantum communications are formulated.

The need for discrete mathematics as a vehicle to describe the results of physical research is proven. Thus, for the first time, it is proposed to use α-number system in which α=1 ⁄137·10-57. Due to this an approach to clarify World constants is shown

It is shown that cryptographic approaches to data protection makes it possible to define the limits of the achievable level of cryptographic protection of information. Increasing complexity of cryptographic algorithms due to the length or the number of encryption keys gets limitation. Theoretically, their further increase beyond the actual large quantities does not increase their chance, that is it does not improve the quality of encryption.


Hotyan О. A., technical directorn of «WisdomWell» company

THE ALGORITHM OF BUILDING «THEME DAY» OF INTERNET MASS-MEDIA

A large amount of information messages of Internet media news makes the perception of the most pressing and important current events impossible. Therefore, to improve the efficiency of informing, the news agencies use methods of compressed representation of news content throughout the day. Principles for such methods are the grouping algorithms (classification) of news by linguistic basis, (the similarity of vocabulary) .

Reviews of classical approaches to the classification of documents and some improvements presented in the works of Amons A.A., Yanov Y.O., Bezpalov I.O., Lande D.V., Furashev V.N., Braichevskiy S.M. and other scientists. The result of the classification is a list of «theme events» .

A variety of existing theories as of the structure of the Universe is discussed in brief. No theory or model is per. The purpose of our work is obtaining algorithm of classifying newsgroups that takes into account both lexical and meaningful similarity. Such groups we call «theme of the day».

In the article the determination «theme of the day» is given as a construction that takes into account the lexical and meaningful signs of the group of the related documents. We have reviewed the known solutions to the task of classification of documents, on the basis of which some modifications of general algorithm are proposed, as well as separate constituents of classification of great number of the received messages from the Internet MASS-MEDIA. The algorithm of the "theme of day" construction is proposed. The algorithm is performed by applying a two-level classification of news (option of K-nearest neighbours method) selected during the day. At the first level messages are grouped into «stories of events» by the similarity of vocabulary. On the second level, «theme events», algorithm combines in the «theme day» on the basis of the classification of messages by the meaning and contents, that are included in different themes.

The given results of testing the offered algorithm represent its efficiency and informativity for the compressed reflection of the news content of large collection of incoming messages. This enables to direct further research on the identifying the information influence through the Internet media.


Yakovliev S. V., senior lecturer, Department of mathematical methods of information security, Institute of Physics and Technology, National Technical University of Ukraine, Kyiv Polytechnic Institute

FAULT ATTACKS ON DSTU GOST 28147:2009 CIPHER

Fault attacks are the class of active side-channel attacks on cryptosystems. An analyst has additional possibilities to break cryptosystem (for example, to find an encryption key) due to capability to cut in encryption process and to cause faults. There are some approaches to construct such attacks on Feistel ciphers, but few of open publications dedicated to national encryption standard DSTU GOST 28147:2009 (GOST cipher) can be found.

In this article we propose fault attack on GOST cipher, which generalizes existing approaches in case of using bitwise and modular additions with round key in Feistel scheme. Practical examination of avalanche maps of GOST cipher gives us a potential of effective implementation of proposed attack for GOST-like ciphers with faults in the last seven-eight rounds of encryption.

We consider different fault models – a model with fixed fault position and a model with random fault position in particular. Faults with fixed position of last two rounds allow to recover single tetrads of round keys with minimal amount of statistical data, but other tetrads in this case may be unrecoverable in general. At the same time faults with fixed position in long-range rounds take more statistics, but any tetrad of round key can be recovered with prominent possibility (up to 0.7 on average).

Model of random position faults demands much more statistical data and does not allow a guaranteed full recovery of all tetrads of round keys, but recovering single tetrads in this model is satisfactory. Acquired experimental data can be used for boundary conditions evaluation for proposed attack. We determined that most effective way to attack GOST cipher is to set up faults in some fixed positions. In this case the guaranteed recovery of the last round key needs 10-20 faults on 27th encryption round. Furthermore, the obtained statistical data can be reused in the attack on other round keys ue to long-range positions of faults.

We also examined some possible ways to increase the efficiency of proposed attacks with additional information. We show that the using of locations, partially affected with fault, allows to recover some of round key tetrads or to severely decrease a number of potential candidates. At the same time, an empirically found data on distribution of recognition functions, used in attack, can increase efficiency in theory, but we show that it does not give us an expected improvement in practice.


Dovgan О.D., PhD in law, senior researcher, Scientific and Research Institute of Informatics and Law of the National Academy of Legal Sciences of Ukraine

LEGAL BASIS OF UKRAINE’S INFORMATION SECURITY ENSURING SYSTEM: FORMATION AND DEVELOPMENT

The article considers the legal basis of the formation and development of information security ensuring system of Ukraine. The attention is focused on the possibility based on theoretical developments and practical data to form an adequate system of monitoring and management of threats and dangers in the information sector and also the development of an effective information security ensuring system and its components, including definition of objects and subjects of information security and legal bases of their activities and as a result – building a model of information security.

Today, the system works mostly to counteract threats, ie for passive component, although in our opinion with regard to EU countries, information security must be built on the model of strategic thinking: taking measures to protect the purposes of maintenance and ensuring safety based on the principles of democracy, human rights, secure internet and more.

Model of random position faults demands much more statistical data and does not allow a guaranteed full recovery of all tetrads of round keys, but recovering single tetrads in this model is satisfactory. Acquired experimental data can be used for boundary conditions evaluation for proposed attack. We determined that most effective way to attack GOST cipher is to set up faults in some fixed positions. In this case the guaranteed recovery of the last round key needs 10-20 faults on 27th encryption round. Furthermore, the obtained statistical data can be reused in the attack on other round keys ue to long-range positions of faults.

All this requires legislative consolidation as soon as possible because in the normative act there will be determined single conceptual and categorical apparatus, state information security policy, information security objects and subjects, legal-area of agencies involved in information security ensuring, mechanisms for coordinating their activities to respond to challenges and threats to national security in the information sphere, consolidation order of legal relations of the state security structures with other bodies and agencies assigned by law to the subjects of national security of Ukraine and others.


Slyusarchuk I. V., Doctor of Laws, Professor of the Special Chair of National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine
Pіchak N. Y., ., cadet of National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine

RUSSIAN ANTI-UKRAINIAN INFORMATION WAR

The article reveals the features of Russian information war against Ukraine in the context of events on the temporarily occupied territories (Autonomous Republic of Crimea, a part of Donetsk and Lugansk regions); spheres of influence of the Russian information war of Russia (foreign policy, national security, military, internal policy, economic, social and humanitarian); methods (propaganda, agitation, biased information, half-truth, outright lie) and means (Internet, TV, radio, print media, film production, books), which are used; the aspects of international cooperation; issues of improvement of counteracting to information war of the neighboring state. It is pointed out that analysis of certain features of information war which is waged by Russia on our state indicates that this information war is planned, systematic and coordinated at the highest state level.

It is noted that the main goal of open Russian information war against Ukraine is not only possessing certain territories, but seizing their residents’ consciousness. Russian propaganda by means of spreading misinformation or biased presentation of comments is seeking to discredit the new government and all the Ukrainian people as well as spread panic, create such situation that would tactically and strategically ensure the establishment of the «Russian World» concept. False information about events in our country, broadcast by a range of Russian TV channels, aimed at discreditation of Ukraine, incitement of ethnic hostility, appeals to hatred, violation of sovereignty and territorial integrity, establishing the supremacy of one nation over the others.

An approach to solve the problem of determining the amount of investment into the system of information protection, which is based on study of the model of information risks is offered. The formation of its structure and parameters is based on the use of information concerning the actual mechanisms of the development and implementation of information threats, in particular, on economical and value model, which is used to estimate the probability of successful realization of the attack on information system vulnerability.

The paper emphasizes that the Russian information war against Ukraine is a real threat to national interests of our state. In order to ensure effective information security of Ukraine it is very essential to understand the nature and features of such war, spheres of its influence, methods and means of realization as well as issues of international cooperation and possible means of combating that allows to react flexibly and promptly.


Solodka O.M., PhD in law, leading scientific researcher, National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine

THE GENESIS OF SCIENTIFIC AND LEGAL APPROACHES TO THE FORMULATION OF THE CONCEPT «INFORMATION SOVEREIGNTY OF STATE»

The article based on analysis of domestic and international legal practice and research peculiarities of scientific and legal approaches » studies the concept of «information sovereignty.

In view of this study, it can be argued that the issues of information sovereignty update under modern conditions of the information society accelerated development.

Thus, the analysis of legal regulation of the issues of information sovereignty in national legislation indicates significant gaps, making it difficult further development and improvement of information legislation, formation and development of information society. Foreign practice indicates diversified approaches to legal regulation of the given issue, due to various kinds of factors – the legal system and state-legal mode types, the level of information technological development of the country and so on.

The scientific debate on this issue has been going on long enough and now mainly consists of the following:
– the necessity of information sovereignty allocation as a separate species of sovereignty;
– the interpretation of information sovereignty as an absolute control in the information sphere, the mechanism of information and national security ensuring in general, the principle of jurisdiction definition in the international justice.


Chekhovska M. М., Doctor of Economics, associate professor, the head of the chair, National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine

STRATEGIC COMMUNICATIONS OF SUBJECTS OF SECURITY AND DEFENSE SECTORS OF UKRAINE

The article examines the prospects of realization of strategic communications. principles in Ukraine. Actual the theme of strategic communications became after annexation of Autonomous Republic of Crimea by Russian Federation and armed aggression on the east of Ukraine. Hybrid war of Russian Federation against Ukraine educed defecting forming of effective mechanisms of exchange by information, coordination of actions, systems of making decision, necessary under the conditions of crisis situation. Exactly strategic communications are called to perfect the process of exchange information, to set effective communicative politics.

Complex problem, related to the necessity of organization and improvement of the process of information exchange that is firstly based on partner cooperation, including the adjustment of effective feedback, it exists not only in interdepartmental communication, it is inherent to the concrete subjects as well. Having regard to the abovementioned, the realization of measures on adjusting effective communicative politics must take place both in horizontal and in vertical forms.

Development of general vision and common strategy of actions must consist of the plane of the collective discussion of particular problem, based on the openness, creativity, multi-variant approach. Among technologies of developing general approaches in the decision of the controversial issue it is possible to mention realization of the so-called «brain storms», in particular, in the forms of seminars, forums or round table. The terms of realization of the indicated measures must be a representative office of all interested subjects of the security and defense sector, public organizations, as well as periodicity and effectiveness of meetings.

Investigating the problems of establishment and conduct of hybrid wars, the author underlines the necessity of introduction of the strategic communications mechanism in the system of security and defense sector subjects of Ukraine . The article reveals that one of the elements of realization of strategic communications is the use of strategic narratives. The author describes approaches to the creation of the strategic narratives system for the needs of the security and defense sector of Ukraine.


Shlapachenko V. M., PhD in law, senior researcher, National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine
Makarenko V. V., PhD in law, senior researcher, National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine

THE ROLE OF COUNTERINTELLIGENCE ACTIVITIES IN THE STATE SECRETS PROTECTION

Considering state secrets threats as the factors influencing information sphere of the state security it is obvious that their levels of danger differ significantly.

Unlike probable possibility of getting information constituting state secrets by foreigners (or other undesirable respondents) as a result of its disclosure or loss, intelligence (espionage) provides selective, systematic, and under certain conditions – a systematic and guaranteed obtaining of classified information. Besides, if the effective application of operational and preventive measures can significantly reduce the threat of information leakage by these losses and disclosure, the use of these measures as counter espionage activity gives significantly less effect and is clearly insufficient.

Therefore, we can say that the intelligence activities aimed at obtaining information constituting a state secret – espionage – is the most dangerous kind of leakage of information constituting a state secret, and is the greatest threat to their protection.


Blagodarniy A. N., senior researcher, PhD in law, associate professor of Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine
Shtelmah O. V., cadet of National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine

ORGANIZATIONAL ASPECTS OF THE COUNTERACTION AGAINST THE INFORMATION AGGRESSION AS A FORMING COMPONENT OF THE HYBRID WAR

The main sources of information (television, the Internet, press, news agencies) help to form public opinion, influence patriotic spirit of citizens and as a result are the most effective handling aids and dissemination of their ideas and beliefs, advocacy work and aggression within the general public.

The information aggression is an essential part of the «hybrid war». «Hybrid concept» is not an official one and there is no definition for such type of warfare in international legal papers. According to scientists, the «hybrid war» is the complex of traditional war conducting ways involving armed non-state actors. The essential component of the «hybrid war» is an influence on the information sphere of society, in other words, revealing of information aggression to the country that is the object of the «hybrid war».

The information aggression can be determined as illegal actions by one of the parties in the information sphere the purpose of which is to cause a significant damage to the opposing side. The aim is to influence not only the people’s consciousness but also their unconsciousness in order to change public opinion in their own interests among both targeted nation and aggressor-nation.

According to the «hybrid war» strategy and the features and methods of information aggression there are such aspects of counteraction: the monitorship of media scene; prohibition of armed non-state actors formation; enhancing the authority of government and army in the country; effective and successful information policy.


Hryshchenko I. V., postgraduate student of National Academy of the Security Service of Ukrain

STAGES OF FORMATION OF LEGAL REGULATION OF STATE SECRETS IN UKRAINE

In the history of state secret in Ukraine, we have identified a few basic steps. The first phase accounted for the period XIX – early XX century. It finished in 1917 with the collapse of the Russian Empire. The first measures, which were aimed at protecting classified information (development of the legal framework and putting this issue to the competence of the authorities) were marked. However, the lack of special departments led to the fact that all actions were chaotic and did not provide effective protection of state secrets.

The second phase accounted for the period of national liberation movements 1917–21, because at that time Ukraine became a subject of international relations and took part in negotiations, concluded agreements, which were aimed at protecting statehood and territorial integrity. However, as Ukrainian states (Central Rada, Hetmanate, and Directory) existed briefly and in a state of permanent war, they are not able to develop the necessary legal framework to establish an effective system of protection of classified information.

The beginning of the third stage of forming the system of state secret in Ukraine coincided with the formation of the Soviet Union, accounting for 20–30 years of the XX century. Soviet State had external threats and internal opposition. That’s why, they made a national security agencies, that would be involved in the preservation of classified information. Soviet system of protection of classified material changed during the Second World War and 60-th years, which was associated with the activation of external threats.

The fourth period of formation of the system of state secret in Ukraine is covering the period of independence. The beginning of this system accounted for 1992-93: work was carried out in two directions – creation of special bodies and development of the regulatory framework.

Ukrainian government inherited the system of state secret from the Soviet Union, but since independence accumulated considerable experience in the creation and development of special legislation that properly regulates relations in the field of classified information.


Sidak V. S., Correspoding Member of the National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine, PhD of Historical Sciences, Professor, chief research associate SOC NA SSU

HISTORICAL ASPECTS OF THE COUNTER TO THE INFORMATION AGGRESSION

The historical method made it possible to investigate the state of the usage of domestic and international experience of the counter to hostile information and propaganda actions by governmental institutions (the armed forces, security services, media, etc.) in the current situation of military and information aggression of the Russian Federation against Ukraine.

The occurrence, formation and development of processes and events in chronological order aimed at identification of internal and external connections, patterns and contradictions have been analyzed. Methods of analysis and comparison made it possible to see the effectiveness of the system of countering to information aggression in different historical periods and allowed to reason, what should be used from that experience in the current situation.

It has been found that wide domestic and world historical experience of the counter to information aggression can be creatively used by the relevant structures of our country in current conflict with the Russian Federation. As for today, this experience is used superficially, without creative approach. A lot of opportunities remain unused.

The implementation of this study has been described according to three directions: a) information and psychological influence on the enemy and his environment (the population of the occupied territories); b) military and patriotic upbringing of soldiers and officers of defense agencies of our country, including an increase of their morale; c) the deep and wide-ranging anti-propaganda activities against the information aggressor in order to neutralize his efforts against the population of our country.

On the basis of improved research methodology of historical aspects of the counter to information aggression practical recommendations have been made. These recommendations can be used as scientific basis for projections, strategies and programs on ensuring the country’s information space.


Bova A. A., Candidate of Sociological Sciences, Senior Researcher, Head of the Research Department of the State Research Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine.

PREDICTING THE NUMBER OF HOMICIDES IN UKRAINE DEPENDING ON THE SIZE OF THE AVERAGE WAGE (THE PRACTICE OF USING THE GROUP METHOD OF DATA HANDLING)

The article considers problems of forecasting crimes under current conditions in Ukraine which lie in the prompt change in a state of social and economic situation, latency of social processes, incomplete reliability of data and uncertainty of the theory. The results of forecasting the rate of homicides depending on change of an average salary based on the Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) and polynomial neural networks are presented. Thus statistical data of Public service of statistics of Ukraine and the Prosecutor General’s Office of Ukraine for 1985–2014 are used. The conclusion about probable decrease in quantity of the registered obvious premeditated murders in 2015 is drawn.

The family of algorithms of GMDH solves the problems of regression, classification, forecasting temporary ranks (by autoregression model, curve fitting or factor modeling for multivariate time series), a choice of potential exogenous and endogenous variables, necessary length of a number of dynamics for a certain quantity of variables. Self-organizing models are used either on selections of small samples (short time series), or on big data sets, at small or very large number of independent variables, on noisy or incomplete data, in the presence of supervision, sharply allocated. The result of algorithms work is near optimum, according to the accuracy and stability of the results on new data, mathematical decision in the form of a polynomial, including polynoms of low degrees and their interaction.The analysis of data was carried out in the programs KnowledgeMiner, GMDH Shell, NeuroShell 2, DTREG. .


Klymchuk O. О., Head of Information Security Chair, National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine, PhD, Associate Professor
Tkachuk N. А., Analyst of the Department of Information Security, Security Service of Ukraine, Postgraduate Student of National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine

ROLE OF LAW ENFORCEMENT BODIES AND SPECIAL SERVICES IN NATIONAL CYBER SECURITY SYSTEMS OF LEADING COUNTRIES

Analysis of cyber security legislation and organizational measures aimed at developing effective cyber security systems of leading countries suggests that key world players improve their cyber defense capability in accordance with the transformation of current cyber threats.

Recently the forms, entities and negative effects of major cyber threats underwent serious changes. Cyber attacks became more complex and sophisticated, their consequences threaten key national interests, and their organizers or sponsors more often turn to be special services of foreign states or terrorist organizations.

The need for implementing effective measures to counter current cyber threats on national level leads to increasing role of special services and law enforcement agencies which have counter-intelligence functions and perform tasks to counteract activity of special services of foreign states and terrorism.

Thus in the USA, Canada, Austria, Germany, Romania, Poland and other countries the key role in national cyber security systems belongs to special services and law enforcement bodies which execute counter-intelligence functions. More over these entities fulfill interagency coordination through the National Cyber Security Centers and the Computer Emergency Readiness Teams (CERTs), which function under their jurisdiction or as a part of their organizational structure.

In Ukraine the National Computer Emergency Readiness Team (CERT-UA) are functioning as a part of the State Service of Special Communication and Information Protection of Ukraine, which doesn’t have neither law enforcement nor counterintelligence functions and used to be a structural part of the Security Service of Ukraine.

Taking into account international experience and nature of current cyber threats to national security it is advisable to return the State Service of Special Communication and Information Protection of Ukraine to the Security Service of Ukraine that is the only counter-intelligence body of Ukraine whose main function is to protect state security. This will promote creation of efficient national cyber security system of Ukraine able to protect national interests against threats of cyber space.


Chumak V. V., PhD in law, Associate Professor, Member of Parliament of Ukraine

UKRAINIAN NATIONAL COUNCIL OF THE NATIONAL CENTRE FOR UKRAINIAN PEOPLE’S REPUBLIC IN EXILE: THE LEGAL STATUS AND COMPETENCE

Using a systematic approach, historical and situational method the legal status and competence of the Ukrainian National Rada – «legislative Ukrainian People’s Republic in exile» has been investigated.

The ending of World War II has marked a new important stage of the development of Ukrainian state in exile. It is characterized by the consolidation of efforts of various political groups that reached a compromise on the basis of the idea of European parliamentarism. It resulted in the creation of the Ukrainian National Rada.

The author has studied the competence, powers, functions and activities of the National Council of Ukrainian State Center of Ukrainian People’s Republic in exile and their further changes. It has been proved that the UPR had the status of a standard-setting body of a public organization. The competence of the body, in practice, was much wider.

The practical significance involves supplement of some aspects of the theoretical framework of the history of the state and the law of Ukraine. The results should be used in the study of historical and legal disciplines.


Zhuravel V. I., Doctor of Medicine, professor of National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine
Tkachuk T. Y., associate professor of the Chair of National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine

SOCIAL COMPONENT OF INFORMATION SECURITY MANAGEMENT

The article proves that enhancing the efficiency of the system for the protection of classified information is directly proportional to the establishment and implementation of its social component to the activities of government officials and the management of information security.

It is stressed that nowadays it is impossible to imagine the activity of any information security structure outside the systems, such as organizations, which are created and operate due to the management. Besides, the implementation of information security management is revealed in innovation, investment and outright marketing activity of organization, its business and political marketing. This allows to avoid financial turmoil in the market place and create real background to overcome possible difficulties in the future.

It’s grounded that due to social component of information security management the policy, tactics and behavior of business management concerning the incorporation of direct and backward links between governance and society are formed.

The businesses management experience in Japan and the USA is analyzed. This allowed developing practical recommendations for domestic experience. In particular, it concerns the development of mechanisms to motivate workers to protect commercial secrets, and improvement of professional ethics. It is also advisable to include to extremely important mechanism of interaction between society and management the moral and ethical aspects of the service and professional relations and cooperation, based on partnership, in the sphere of protection of classified information.

It is proved that the relationship between society and management in general, and management of classified information system, in particular, is highly variable and constantly changeable.


Knyazev S. O., PhD in law, senior researcher, professor of the Chair of National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine

MODERN TRENDS OF INFORMATION CLASSIFICATION AS SERVICE INFORMATION

On the basis of the analysis of applicable regulations, scientific achievements the author defines the current trends of information classification as service information and singles out a number of related issues which require specific legal regulation.

It is noted that the subjective interpretation of existing standards does not promote a common understanding of procedures of information classification as service information by the management. As a result, there is a significant amount of remarks and deficiencies to which much attention is paid by human rights organizations on the analysis of service information lists of various public authorities, local governments, other government entities, including delegated powers.

In order to streamline regulatory procedures for classifying information as service, the author of the article proposed the consolidation of a number of appropriate conceptual framework and provided general guidelines for their implementation, including:

Defining basic categorical apparatus in the use of service information («service information», «service information protection», «referring to the category of service information», «socially necessary information», «information with restricted access», etc.);

streamlining procedures of classifying information as service (creating a typical nationwide list of service information, calculating damage from service information disclosure, the definition of socially relevant information criteria, etc.);

determining the terms and procedure for reviewing service information;

ensuring the implementation of effective mechanisms for monitoring its using etc.


Kravchenko O. M., Post-graduate Student of the Administrative, Financial and Economic Law Department of the Academy of Labor, Social Relations and Tourism

NEW PARADIGMS OF CURRENT THREATS TO TRADE SECRET

This article explores current issues of current threats to a trade secret. The variety of potential threats to a trade secret in modern society was analyzed. The ways of improving the protection of a trade secret are determined. The purpose of the protection of a trade secret can only be achieved by creating a system of information protection on the basis of an integrated approach.

The problem of information security is a combination of closely related sub-problems in the fields of law, management, technical tools, programming and mathematics. Obviously, an effective system of protection can be created by combining the efforts of different specialists. One of the central tasks of designing protection systems consists in the rational allocation of available human, material and other resources.

As for the protection of a trade secret you should conclude nondisclosure agreements with employees and third parties who may have access to it, in advance providing effective sanctions for the breach of obligations regarding the storage of relevant information, in addition to non-legal protection measures (technical, organizational, etc).

Through the strengthening of economic competition under the conditions of development of market relations in Ukraine a trade secret of business entities and its protection becomes the first priority. The development of economic competition, the need to achieve advantages in the market put before the business entities the task of protecting trade secrets through legal means.

This article is based on a detailed analysis of current threats to a trade secret.

The main aim of this article is to define the most relevant current threats to a trade secret and to counteract them.

All commercial objects must build its information security system on the conceptual basis, considering the purpose of the object, its size, the accommodation, nature of business, financial capabilities, etc. The development of the protection concept must be based on a detailed analysis of the activities of business structures and complex security requirements. Especially if the business objects use in their activity means of information.

Taking into consideration the diversity of potential threats to information in a data processing system, the complexity of structure and functions, as well as human involvement in the process of information processing, the purpose of the protection of a trade secret can only be achieved by creating a system of information protection on the basis of an integrated approach. And this system must be created by the assessment of the security threats to the operation of a business object, and based on the results of the analysis, the decision on construction of the whole system of protection of a trade secret is made.

Thus we can conclude that the staff of the company is the major source of entrepreneurial activity, on the one hand, some employees for various reasons could generate large losses and even business bankruptcy, on the other hand. Therefore, organizational and administrative measures to protect a trade secret must be combined with social and psychological measures. Among the social and psychological measures of protection two main areas can be singled out: firstly, proper selection and placement and, secondly, the use of material and moral incentives.


Gorovyі V. M., Doctor of Historical Sciences, Professor, Senior staff scholar at the Laboratory of the National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine
Solodka O. M., Candidate of Legal Sciences, Senior staff scholar at the Laboratory of the National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine

THE HUMANITARIAN BASES OF THE INFORMATIONAL SECURITY OF UKRAINE

The problem of optimizing the current humanitarian activities aimed at counteracting the total effects of the modern information warfare and the emphasis on importance of the humanities in the national consolidation of the Ukrainian society have been analyzed in this article.

The informational and psychological warfare being waged in the recent years against our state brings to understanding of the informational security that has already become traditional for the initial development of the informational society ,new characteristic features, which, in their turn, require improved approaches, so as to justify theoretically taking in consideration the negative informational effects. One of the most significant features of the said war, which is getting more and more obvious at the present time, is its total impact on the Ukrainian society, at its whole social statehood structure, at the depth of its informational exchange. Therefore, the problem of an effective informational opposition to aggression under the current is gaining a special importance. Its solution is linked with the needs of the humanitarian sphere of our society, such as the practical implementation of the synthesizing principle in the field of the scientific, informational and analytical activities for ensuring an adequate response to the challenges associated with the negative informational effects on the national informational space.


Medvid А. В.,Сandidate of Legal Sciences, Associate Professor at the Department of the State and Law Theory, Lviv Commercial Academy

TO THE ISSUES OF THE LEGAL FIXING THE HUMAN RIGHTS AND OF THE FUNDAMENTAL FREEDOMS IN THE EUROPEAN AND NATIONAL CONSTITUTIONAL ACTS AND THEIR DRAFTS OF THE 19th CENTURY

Principles proclaimed by the French Declaration of the Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms in 1789 were repeated in the texts of many European constitutional acts of the 19th century. For instance, in the Constitutional Law of Austria «The Principal State Law on the General Rights of the Citizens for the Kingdoms and Lands of the Reichsrat» of 21 December 1867, the Belgian Constitution of 7 February 1831, the Constitution of Spain of June 8, 1867, «The Fundamental Statute of the Italian Kingdom» of 4 March 1848, the Constitution of Greece of 16 November1864, and others.

In the second half of the 19th century the Ukrainian political and legal studies started to develop actively including the sphere of the rights and freedoms protection. The first known draft of the national constitutional and legal studies in the middle of the 19th century «The Constitution of the Republic» was George Andruzkyj, one of the members of the Cyril-Methodius Brotherhood. In his draft of the Constitution the author proclaimed the following: the right to the personal freedom, the principle of equality before the Law, the freedom of thought and freedom of the press, protection of the ownership right, the right to education, the needs to prohibit slavery.

Another significant national political and legal document in that period was the draft by M. Dragomanov «Free union. A Draft of Foundation of the Statute of the Ukrainian Society», 1884. The mentioned constitutional draft was in line with the best European samples of that period in the sphere of the regulation of the legal status of an individual and was to provide the following: the right to life, banning of tortures, right to one’s liberty and security, the right to a fair trial, the right to respecting one’s private life, the freedom of choosing one’s residence, the freedom of thought, conscience and belief, the freedom of expressing one’s opinions, the freedom of gathering and others. That was these rights and freedoms that later were set up internationally in the Convention for protection of the human rights and fundamental freedoms dating from 1950.

All above-mentioned proves that Ukraine has a common heritage together with other European states in regard of its national political traditions, ideals, freedoms and the binding principle to observe the Law in the sphere of ensuring the human rights and fundamental freedoms, which were later officially set up in the European Convention on protection of the human rights and fundamental freedoms.


Ostroukhov V. V., Doctor of Philosophic Sciences, Professor, Head of the Philosophy Chair at the National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine
Velychko M. V., Candidate of Biological Sciences, Senior Researcher, Leading Staff Scientist at the National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine Salahor I. M., Captain of Justice, a Scientific Degree-Seeking Applicant, The National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine

COMMUNICATIOS: THE BIOLOGICAL AND sociological ASPECTS

At the beginning of the 21st century, the humanity faced vitally an important problem of providing the biological safety in all its aspects. Actuality of the biological safety concerning both the national security of Ukraine, and that one of other states of the world has been challenged not so much due to the negative effects of natural phenomena, but also because of the anthropogenic activity that has become the source of pernicious effects on the biosphere. The human community will destroy itself without radical changes of the planetary level in relation of diminishing the anthropogenic loading on the environment. Even local ecological problems are conditional, as the natural environment is a single whole. Man, as a biological creature, that appeared on top of the biotic pyramid created on the basis of communicative systems of other living organisms its own super powerful communicative society that happened to be a threat for communications of other living creatures.

Communication is a natural and social phenomenon that in the global space measuring is a complex, multilevel symbiosis in the field of living systems, as well as in the human technical systems, network systems, connecting systems and processes of movement of anything and anybody in time and space, including systems for transmission, distribution, reception and saving symbols of the artificial and natural origin of all forms of being.

The authors have studied the communication genesis at its different levels with the purpose of revealing the new biological risks and threats in the spectrum of an evolutional development of life on the Earth. They offer actions counteracting the specific anthropogenic threats including those ones of the legal character.


Prozorov A. Yu., A Senior Lecturer at the National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine

VALUABLE BASICS OF THE INFORMATIONAL SECURITY OF AN INDIVIDUAL, SOCIETY AND STATE

The range of the global problems resulting from the technocratic development, after their integration with the external and internal menaces and risks, turn into a source of threats to a sustainable functioning of the Ukrainian society. The factors that require reconsideration of the society priorities were as follows: an increase in the scale and spread of the geography of committed terrorist acts, including the tragic events in the East of Ukraine, Egypt, France, Lebanon, Turkey, Syria and the ones that took place on 11 September 2001 in the United States; the terrorist attacks in the Russian Federation, England, Spain, India, Iran, Norway, Pakistan; humanitarian disasters in Africa, south-east Asia, Palestine, South Ossetia; an avalanche of the environmental and anthropogenic disasters, which confirmed the facts of changes having happened in the hierarchy of values in the modern world; a systematic crisis of the Ukrainian society. The emergence of new threats to provide the security of Ukraine as well as a sustainable development of the Ukrainian society make us reconsider the contents of the national values, including the informational field as the socio-cultural basis of the society’s strategy.

One of the urgent tasks of ensuring the national security under conditions of having an informational warfare is the development of valuable fundamentals of providing informational security of an individual, the society, and the state, which will enable Ukraine’s successful development, while reliably integrating into the world community and maintaining its state independence, sovereignty, assuring its national security.

The article considers the informational values, norms and relationships constituting an appropriate framework of the national culture. Based on the understanding of these constituents, it is suggested to define the notion of «informational security of culture» as a certain level of development of the informational sphere of the society jointly with the growth of special expertise in informational relationships, values and norms and standards of the informational activities, which provide a sustainable cultural functioning and protection of the information-related interests of an individual, the society and the state on the whole regardless any treats available. A material embodiment of the culture of the informational security shall be informational resources, informational and the technologies of telecommunication and the infrastructure, which ensures data protection and security of the informational system as well as the system of telecommunication.

Therefore, the approach being proposed in this study has enabled to define the role of the national values in providing the national security of Ukraine, to specify the informational security problems in the modern society and the task with respect to the provision of that by the state and society, as well as to use the valuable priorities of the informational sector as the socio-cultural criteria for the identification of informational challenges and to formulate a definition of the culture of the informational security.


Tkachuk N. A., Post-graduate Student of the National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine

THE ORIGIN AND FORMATION OF THE CONCEPT «THE CYBERSPACE» AS THE FUNDAMENTAL ELEMENT OF THE CYBER SECURITY SPHERE

The article is a study of the origin and formation of the concept «cyberspace» as the fundamental element of the cyber security sphere. The author has systematized different scientific approaches to the problem under consideration and studied the international experience in the formation of the terminology relating to the cyber security domain, as well as to the issue of the cyberspace fragmentation.

This academic study is in fact a comprehensive analysis of the principal approaches having been applied in leading foreign countries concerning the development of a terminology framework related to the cyber security sphere and to the interpretation of the term «the cyberspace». A thorough study of foreign regulatory acts in the field of the cyber security has brought the author to the conclusion that the development of the cyberspace definitions and their future modifications are being carried out primarily in the interest of the law enforcement and national security and defense sectors.

The author stresses on needs to define the national terminology used in the in cyber sphere, which will contribute to providing the required organizational, legal and technical instruments ensuring the cyber security of Ukraine.

After consideration of the nature of the national cyber security sphere of Ukraine the author proposes her own definition of the notion «the cyberspace» as «a complex environment resulting from the interaction between people, hardware, software and network technologies, which consists of the informational infrastructure ensuring its functioning and of an informational content circulating in it».

The article also touches upon the issue of the cyberspace fragmentation. Taking into account the actual cyber threats being faced by the national security system and by the available world practices, the author suggests including the notion «the national segment of the cyberspace» into the legal framework of the cyber security domain. Examples of the cyberspace fragmentation mechanisms in other countries and a detailed study of their natures have been provided in the described study.

The results of the article can be applied in the process of further formation on national terminology framework in the cyber security domain and building of national cyber security system.


Blagodarnyі A. N., senior researcher, PhD in law, associate professor of Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine
Bondar I. G., cadet of National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine

PROBLEMS OF LEGAL IMPLEMENTATING THE E-GOVERNMENT FUNCTIONING IN UKRAINE

Ukraine ranked 87 among the 193 member-states of the United Nations Organization according to the statistical data of an international assessment of the development of the electronic government «The United Nations E-Government Survey 2014: E-Government for the Future We Want» (which is carried every two years). The outcomes demonstrate an unfavorable situation for the E-government development in our country at present.

Currently, introduction in Ukraine of an E-government functioning is the precondition for an efficient operation of its state system. It can change the nature of the power itself by ensuring transparency of its activities. The E-government provides favorable conditions for the business development, enhances the investment climate and economic growth. Making analyses of the main problems impeding the development of the government system based on the informational and communicative resources, we must sadly admit the fact of an insufficient provision of the regulatory support. In our opinion, this aspect has recently become even more urgent, than the issue relating to the financial insurance of development of the respective mechanism. Based on the analysis of the legal and regulatory framework for providing the e-governing, recommendations have been produced as for the improvement of activities of the principal subjects of the informational policy the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine, the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, local self-government authorities and public organizations. Further, the mainstream in the academic studies in the above said field should be focused on improvement of the legal regulation for guaranteeing provision of citizens with public services in the real time, of regulation of procedures for appealing with requests and reception of replies on those, and also that for the standardization and unification of the respective official documents. Besides, the legislation should define the rights and obligations, order of connecting the users to the «Electronic Government» informational system, the nature and the status of the information in the respective information database, responsibilities of the parties for providing and using the available information, and the legal status of the documents generated by the system for providing services for the citizens of Ukraine.


Holovka A. A., Post-graduate Student of the National Institute for Strategic Studies

THE CIVIL SOCIETY INSTITUTE IN UKRAINE’S INFORMATION SECURITY SYSTEM

The issue of civil society involvement in security policy in the information sphere and interaction between non-government institutions and power structures has been explored in this article.

The problem of counteraction to the informative threats acquired the special value in conditions of modern life, when using of information technologies and their dynamic development is a peculiar attribute of the modern world. Besides, similar risks affect economic and financial relations, state-administrative personnel, social and political sphere, culture, social sector etc. Because of this fact, the effective safety system construction in this sphere is on the agenda of many scientific, public and business organizations, and state structures as well. For this reason, the research of this range of problems is actual.

The main institutions that can provide necessary assistance to the state of information security are public associations, non-governmental analytical centers and mass media.

The main channels of communication between the state and civil society in this area is the work of community councils, contracts, implementation of joint projects / programs / initiatives, public hearings and so on.

Regarding the importance of these issues, it is appropriate to make further studies in this area. In particular, their main areas should include: systematization of the main problems of interaction between civil society and government in the context of security policy, analysis of regulatory information security, and detailed research of public institutions in the system of protection of national interests.


Chekhovska M. M., Doctor of Economics, associate professor, the head of the chair, National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine
Shlapachenko V. M., PhD in law, senior researcher, National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine

SPECIAL PROPAGANDA OF THE SOVIET UNION IN AFGHANISTAN IN 1979–1989

Some aspects of the special propaganda of the Soviet Union in Afghanistan, its strong and weak points have been revealed in this article. Particularly, the feasibility of using postcards, radio-propaganda and the evolution of their essential contents have been considered, for application of propaganda in military conflicts at the present time has a steady tendency to expand, and therefore it requires to be studied thoroughly. It has been noted that an important basis for improving the informational and psychological support of military and anti-terroristic operations shall be studying the experience of conducting propaganda activities during the largest wars of the last century, particularly while «liberating» Afghanistan by the troops of the Soviet Union.

It has been stressed that in the first years of the Afghanistan war, aiming at an effective organization of the propaganda activities focused on the military formations of the opposition and on the civilian population, the Soviet troops lacked experienced specialists who would have been aware of the propaganda and psychological methods and technologies, known well the history, cultural and religious traditions and mentality of the peoples of Afghanistan, had been capable of speaking well enough at least the languages most widely used by the population of Afghanistan. Besides, a significant adverse factor was the lack of up-to-date equipment and means for practicing of the special propaganda.

A characteristic feature of the Afghan period of the development of the special propaganda was improvement of its theoretical basis. Then firstly appeared the notion «types of the special propaganda activities» which were defined by analogy with the types of the military activities, and which implied planning and implementation of complex actions involving political, economic, ideological, military and special methods and measures (but mostly with no using military forces), while the aim was liberating the areas controlled by the enemy combatants and winning the sympathy of the hostile tribes, etc.

New terms having new specific meanings correlated with new relevant activities started to be widely spread and used: special propaganda provision of military actions, propaganda raids, propaganda actions, complex actions of divisions of the special propaganda troops, special propaganda operations. These types of the special propaganda activities differed in their objectives, work methods, territorial scopes, forms, practices other characteristics. Under such circumstances, the principle of ensuring a complex effect of the propaganda actions implied combination of an open, semi-open and closed forms and methods of the propaganda activities.

However, analysis of the special propaganda having been practiced by the USSR in Afghanistan, in addition to some useful and interesting findings, revealed a lot of miscalculations, incorrect approaches and typical failures in approaching the set up tasks that needed their solutions, which were associated primarily with the propaganda of ideas not matching the life experience and the worldwide views of the audience the Soviet special propaganda was oriented initially at, when the Soviet troops were conducting their military actions on the territory of Afghanistan.


Kravchenko O. M., Post-graduate Student of the Administrative, Financial and Economic Law Department, The Academy of Labour, Social Relations and Tourism

TOPICAL PROBLEMS OF PROTECTING TRADE SECRETS OF BUSINESS ENTITIES

This article is a study of the urgent problems relating to the protection of trade secrets of business entities in Ukraine. The ways of improving the legislation of Ukraine in the sphere of trade secrets have been determined. From the text of the article one can see clearly that the main problem in this aspect is the lack of a systematic legislation on the trade secrets in Ukraine, as well as the lack of a unified approach to the problem of protecting trade secrets in Ukraine.

While in the countries with developed market economies trade secrets are protected legally as valuable commodities, in Ukraine there is no full-fledged legal mechanism for protecting of the information constituting trade secrets yet.

The relevance of analysis of ensuring the legal protection of trade secrets in Ukraine rises in conditions of real competition between economic entities, when information becomes a valuable object, for possession of information in a market economy is a precondition for implementation of a competitively successful and profitable economic activity. Provision in Ukraine of economic reforms and promotion of a business development resulted in a significant growing of the volume of trade secrets of business entities.

The basis for the preparation of this article is a thorough analysis of the normative and regulating legal acts, particularly Ukraine’s legislation on the informational provision. Besides, the legislations regarding trade secrets of Ukraine and of foreign countries have been analyzed. The analysis has demonstrated that in Ukraine, to solve the problem connected with trade secrets of business entities, it is required to pass the Law of Ukraine «On Trade Secrets» and bring the Ukrainian legislation in conformity with the legislation of the developed countries having the market economy.

The main purpose of the article is the identification of the most urgent problems regarding the protection of trade secrets of business entities in Ukraine.

The analysis having been made of the problems of providing in Ukraine a legal protection of trade secrets of business entities enables us to make the conclusion about the needs to go on further legislative academic studies, continue the development of practical recommendations for improving the system of the organization and protection of trade secrets of business entities in Ukraine.


Shevchenko M.O., Lecturer at the National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine

A SPECIAL TECHNICAL DEVICE FOR GATHERING COVERT INFORMATION AS AN ADMINISTRATIVE OFFENSE SUBJECT IN THE NATIONAL SECURITY SPHERE

Nowadays a critical situation has been set up in Ukraine in the sphere of the development, manufacture and trading with special devices for the covert information gathering (CIGD). The main problem is the available legislative practice regulating this sphere classifies as the CIGD a lot of household devices (voice recorders, baby monitors, key fobs, pens, GPS trackers, etc.). This situation is accounted for by the absence of a clear legislative regulation of the CIGD marketing sphere, in particular, concerning the CIGD definition.

Lack in the national legislative framework of a clear definition for the term «CIGD», its parameters and criteria for classifying a device as a CIGD means that Ukraine’s citizens do not know as well as cannot know whether they will be charged with an administrative or a criminal liability for their actions, and therefore, they can neither foresee the consequences of their actions nor separate the lawful activities from the unlawful ones. This situation is discordant with the principle of legal definitiveness, thus not only constituting a gross violation of the citizens’ rights, but also hampering the development of science and entrepreneurship in Ukraine.

Therefore, in order to solve the above-mentioned problems in this sphere, it seems urgent to clearly define the term «a special device for the covert information gathering» at the legislative level as follows:

The main purpose of the article is the identification of the most urgent problems regarding the protection of trade secrets of business entities in Ukraine.

«A special technical device» is technical programmed hardware, software, equipment products, devices, mechanisms and other products intended (specifically developed, manufactured, programmed, fitted) for the covert information gathering, whose design provides for a clandestine application of such devices, in particular, for protecting the revealing of their installation and application.


Laputina Y. A. Candidate of Psychological Science (PhD), deputy manager of the Counterintelligence department of state interest in the information safety security of Security Service of Ukraine

STRATEGIC COMMUNICATIONS IN THE SECURITY SECTOR: CONTEMPORARY STATE OF LEGAL REGULATION AND PROSPECTS FOR PERFECTION

The article deals with the issues concerning the legal regulation of the strategic communications in the domestic security sector; the tendencies of legal standards development in regard to the strategic communications institutionalization in the domestic security sector were defined; trends of the first priority to improve the Stratcom legal regulation in the security sector were motivated.

The intensification of the intelligence activity to prepare and to carry out strategic communications, counterpropaganda, information and psychology activities in Ukraine were considered as the basis of crisis reaction on military threat and prevention the military conflicts escalation.

To get advantage over the military enemy, the actions to enhance the state information policy measures aimed at the implementation of the national information policy on the temporarily occupied territories and the international arena should be taken. The information component of the military security would be provided by means of establishing the effectual system of strategic communications arrangements in the security sector activity. Creation and implementation of the common communication strategy for the security and defense sector objects, the determination of the common board to coordinate and control its realization is the only way to form the national defense powers.

The author noticed, the next steps to develop the strategic communications system in Ukraine were considered as studying and implementation of legislature and experience of the NATO member-states, the development and the implementation of the mechanism to coordinate the activity of the state boards in the sphere of strategic communications.


Pelepeichenko L. M., Doctor of Philological Science, professor, The National Academy of Security Service of Ukraine

STRATEGIC COMMUNICATIONS OF LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES IN UKRAINE IN THE CONTEMPORARY SOCIAL CONTEXT

The social events in Ukraine proved the necessity to introduce changes in the communicative interaction between different institutions: the power and the public, the security agencies and the public, the power and the mass media, the mass media and the public etc. The above-mentioned aims can be attained in case we have a clear idea of the system of strategic communications that takes into account the social context in Ukraine. Everything mentioned above proves that the article is topical.

The purpose of the article is to substantiate the concept of strategic communications that takes into account the social context in Ukraine. The objects of the article are: to specify the notion “strategic communications”; to single out stages of interaction in the process of accomplishing of strategic communications; to elucidate the content of the work aimed at the implementation of strategic communications. By strategic communications the author meant coordinated use of communicative actions of security agencies and opportunities offered by public diplomacy, public relations, military public relations, as well as information operations and psychological operations.

The term strategic communications is not the same as the terms public communications or social communications, or other that include communicative aspect of interaction. Strategic communications are characterized by the following: 1) they nominate only communicative actions aimed at attaining the key objectives of the country or its institutions; 2) they are defined by social conditions and urgent tasks of the country, institutions or sector; 3) they need substantiation and clear plan for communicative interaction; 4) they provide for intergovernmental, interstate and intersector interaction; 5) they provide for the work with different target groups.

The key objectives of strategic communications of the Ukrainian security institutions were defined in the article. They were: to correct the image of the security agencies of Ukraine, to build-up trust and positive attitude towards them on the part of ordinary citizens; to build-up ability to counteract information warfare, in particular Russian information aggression.


Shmotkin O. V. Candidate of Law Science (PhD), professor, the department professor, The National Academy of Security Service of Ukraine

THEORETICAL GROUNDS OF LEGAL CYBERNETICS

Legal cybernetics is the academic juridical research trend based on the general cybernetics that studies the law-governed nature of the optimal structure and functioning of the state-legal systems.

The subject of the legal cybernetics is the objective regularity of the legal sphere of public life.

The object of the legal cybernetics study is the basic objective regularities of practice and theory concerning origin, development and existence of legal phenomena, that is the law system, law-making, effectuation of a right, sense of justice, legal activity.

The main varieties of legal cybernetics are law-making and effectuation of a right cybernetics. It is important and urgent for state legal system to keep to specific algorithm in their building and functioning, and specific algorithms are formed by legal cybernetics; without them the system could be turned into chaos. The modern life requires not information but cyber society which is based on being regularity.


Zhalubak V. M. member of The Security Service of Ukraine

ETHICAL GROUNDS FOR PERFORMING PROFESSIONAL RESPONSIBILITIES BY THE OFFICERS OF THE LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES OF UKRAINE WORKING IN THE INFORMATION SPHERE

The range of global issues, born technocratic development, integrating with the dangers of the external and internal plan, is the source of threats to the continuing operation of the Ukrainian society. The factors require to rethink the priorities of society were an increase in the scale and spread of the geography of terrorist acts, including the tragic events in the East of Ukraine, Egypt, France, Lebanon, Turkey, Syria, 11 September 2001 in the United States, the terrorist attacks in Russia, England, Spain, India, Iran , Norway, Pakistan; humanitarian disasters in Africa, Southeast Asia, Palestine, South Ossetia; avalanche of environmental and man-made disasters, which confirmed the changes in the hierarchy of values in the modern world, a systemic crisis in the Ukrainian society. The emergence of new threats to the security of Ukraine and the constant development of the Ukrainian society caused the need to rethink the content of national values, including the social and cultural foundations of its strategy. One of the urgent tasks of ensuring national security in the context of information warfare is to provide valuable fundamentals of person, society and state-information security, it will allow Ukraine to develop successful integration into the world community, while maintaining their independence, sovereignty and security.

Information values, norms, attitudes constitute an appropriate framework of culture were considered in the article. Based on their content understanding the author could propose a definition of information security concept of culture as a certain level of information society development, values and norms of information activities, which provide it strengthened by the operation and security of human information, society and the state from any kind or threats. Tangible information security culture has information resources, information and communications technology and infrastructure ensuring data protection and security of telecommunication systems.


Ivanova N. G., Doctor of Psychological Science, professor, The National Academy of Security Service of Ukraine

PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF APPLYING METHODS OF PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCE IN COMMUNICATION

The article reveals the characteristics of the main methods of the psychological influence. The psychological aspects of psychological influence techniques usage, such as, communicative, method of appeal, method of demonstration, were given in the paper. The main psychological barriers that might be occured in the process of interpersonal interaction, the rules of efficient usage of psychological influence methods and techniques were described.

The author defines a number of rules aimed at achieving the subject of influence: the subject of influence should be interested in the communicative interaction with the person who is going to use his influence; the latter should be known and taken into consideration of psychological peculiarities and definite motives of the subject of influence during the process of communication, personal ability to realize the methods and techniques of psychological influence. During the process of influence one should account on the situation, given conditions, psychology and changes in the subject's disposition. Methods and the techniques of psychological influence should be chosen according to the psychological peculiar features of the subject and some conditions under which they'll be applied. The process of putting into effect certain techniques of influence and the possible reaction of the subject must be planned and foreseen by a person who is going to use the psychological influence. The psychological influence must be legitimate and should not violate the rights of person under influence.

Taking into consideration the individual psychological peculiarities of the interlocutor and the main rules of successful contact interaction as well as the overcoming the main psychological barriers (motivation, intellectual, emotional, volitional) will help to effect psychological influence with success.


Pokalchuk O. V., social psychologist, strategic communications and institutional interaction trainer-consultant, member of National Writers’ Union of Ukraine.

DYNAMICS OF SOCIAL ATTITUDES ON THE OCCUPIED TERRITORIES OF DONETSK AND LUHANSK REGIONS AND IN THE CRIMEA

The main task of any informational influence is the change of the objects of influence behavior. To understand what precedes the realization of the expected operation, it’s necessary to analyze the needs and motives of personality to carry out the activity.

The purpose of this article is to prove that effective work with social attitudes to change the hostile conduct into the pro-Ukrainian should avoid propaganda clichés, be based on the basic needs of the subject and appeal primarily to the emotional sphere.

The tasks of the article are:1) the analysis of approaches of effective social communications with the inhabitants of the occupied territories; 2) the determination of possible attitudes that can facilitate action to restore the territorial integrity of Ukraine; 3) providing the algorithm of social communication with the inhabitants of the occupied territories to develop a precept of the pro-Ukrainian line of conduct;4) the analysis of psychological operations of dehumanization carried out in the occupied territories of Donetsk and Luhansk regions and the Crimea against Ukraine.

The author defines such features of attitude: 1) definite state of mind and nervous system, 2) expressing the willingness to response, 3) organized, 4) based on previous experience, 5) has directive and dynamic influence on behavior.

The possible points of application of the Ukrainian propaganda efforts are to start working from «paragraph 4».

Russian propaganda focuses on the mythological positive experience of the USSR, and the promotion of this emotional imprint is desirable and possible to use in propaganda; transfer it to the previous but a near-by experience of the period of independent Ukraine.

Based on the total moderate dramatization, in which the emotions of the USSR myth design are programmed, it is possible to create additional group format of emotional experiences (paragraph 3); which will create a guiding influence on behavior (paragraph 5); and cause a reflexive willingness to respond to negative elimination (paragraph 2); make nervous system and consciousness permanently ready for action and acts (paragraph 1).


Ponomarenko L.V., Candidate of Political Sciences (PhD), senior lecturer of the Philosophy Department of the Scientific and Educational Institute of Counterintelligent activity of the National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine

INNOVATIVE APPROACHES TO PREVENTING RADICALIZATION OF ATTITUDES AND MANIFESTATIONS OF EXTREMISM IN THE CONTEXT OF PROVIDING SUSTAINED DEMOCRATIC DEVELOPMENT

The actuality of the problem of preventing destructive forms of radicalism and extremism determine the current global trends in the spread of these practices. Recently, the processes of radicalization that lead to violent extremism become widespread and gain new evolutionary forms. This is due, on the one hand, with the worsening socio-economic and political situation, crisis in the cultural, spiritual and other spheres, on the other hand, with the rapid development and popularization of information and telecommunication technologies (ICT), expansion of their functional possibilities.

All forms of extremism are assuming increasingly globalized. As a consequence, it is more difficult for law enforcement agencies to identify and predict terrorist and extremist activities, which indicates the ineffectiveness of traditional combating (including heavy-handed) methods usage, in particular, to eliminate the source and root causes of the problem. That is why now there is an urgent need for a broader approach implication (aimed at intervention at an early stage) for the radicalization prevention.

Thus, the introduction of new educational technologies aimed at preventing the radicalization of moods in the youth environment, direct democracy and a variety of innovative forms and tools of e-democracy is a fairly urgent issue for all levels of political interaction, in any country, including Ukraine, professing democratic values and forging a new path of innovative development.

Investigation of these practices application of proves they are useful and play an important role in civil engagement promoting, expanding the measures of civil initiative and creativity; increasing civil competence; forming the democratic political culture and social relations harmonization. These practices actively promote the development of efficient behaviour patterns for a sufficiently large number of people that are based on individual resources realization. In its turn, this process reduces the degree of tension in the society, prevents the radicalization of society moods and acts as a preventive method against extremism. The carriers of these civil practices have the ability to gain new knowledge and experience, learn new norms and values appropriate to the democratic political and cultural development.


Vasiukova N. V., Candidate of Philological Science (PhD), associate professor of peacekeeper training department in Scientific-training Center of international peacekeeping activity Ivan Chernyakhovsky National Defense University of Ukraine

CIVIL-MILITARY COOPERATION OF UKRAINE: ESTABLISHMENT AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE CONDITIONS OF THE CRISIS

The modern strategic context consists of many ethnic, religious and many other challenges. Therefore the countries facing those challenges have to seek for the ways to meet and resolve them. But mentioned challenges can’t be resolved by purely military means. Many countries have a specific tool within their armed forces to meet these challenges – these are civil-military cooperation (CIMIC) units.

Establishing liaison with civil sector through civil-military cooperation system enables the military to achieve their end state by coordination of all actors’ activities and synchronization of their efforts. It will result in avoidance or timely settlement of all disputes between military and civilian components, enhancing the possibility of political settlement of certain crisis situation.

CIMIC as one of the functions that military perform is a coherent part of modern multidimensional operations; it involves all parts to the conflict and promotes for mutual support of both military and civilian components. The main concept of this liaison is to achieve the aim, applicable for all sides, with taking into consideration the interests of local population, all civil actors (international community representatives, international and non-governmental organizations etc). This cooperation could be successful if each side clearly understands the planning and functioning principles of the other.

CIMIC is not regarded as a universal tool to gain victory, but it provides certain benefits to all actors involved in peacebuilding process, helping them to resolve complex problems.

Generally, military could be involved in stabilization process at any of the following stages (or all of them): peace enforcement, peacekeeping, troops withdrawal (stabilization).

Therefore CIMIC units would perform following functions: establishing communication with key civilian players, establishing and maintaining liaison and information exchange, coordinating military component’s activities and civil-military cooperation, making agreements, assessments and monitoring of approved projects, etc.

The concept of civil-military cooperation is not a new one for many modern armies, but they mostly deploy them for international purposes (peacekeeping or peace support operations). For purely national purposes CIMIC units are mostly involved in crisis management activities, caused by natural or man-made disasters. Therefore Ukraine has somehow unique opportunity to engage CIMIC units in anti-terrorist operation. But reviewing various national concepts to civil-military cooperation and principles of CIMIC units engagement could help us to examine different approaches and to make an efficient lessons learned process. This analysis will contribute to the development of civil-military cooperation system in the Armed Forces of Ukraine and will help us to achieve the interoperability requirements during multinational operations, training and exercises.

To conclude, all actors have to focus on understanding each other’s importance in stabilization process. Nobody is unique and self-sufficient when dealing with crisis management. But all components involved supplement each other’s efforts; make them more efficient and thus, accelerating stabilization process. And on contrary, creating competitive environment, refusing to cooperate leads to the duplication of efforts, increasing the expenses, leaves aside many problems. Optimizing the cooperation, substantiated mutual support is a key to achieve the end state when dealing with a crisis.


Machikova M. K., postgraduate, The National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine

IMAGE-MAKING FOR THE LAW ENFORCEMENT AGENCIES AS AN INSTRUMENT OF PUBLIC DIPLOMACY

The development of public diplomacy as the part of stratkom was analyzed in the article; it was highlighted the experience of NATO and the EU countries’ in the implementation of public diplomacy. It had been affirmed that image positioning of state / institute of sector of defense and security was a communication technology of public diplomacy.

Public diplomacy of the 21st century has to take into account such global factors as prevention of military intervention, the development of information and communication technologies that compress time and distance, rising global non-state actors (terrorist networks, bloggers) who challenge the state-controlled policies. All these challenges lead to active use of public diplomacy technologies by institutions of defense and security sector.

Positioning of security agencies for internal and international audiences envisages broadcast of certain agreed message for own brand consolidation. External image of the security institution has to include the following concepts: the leader (the head of security agency) model of personality (institute experts whose achievements are socially significant), the safety discourse (positions on peace and security maintence, media reports, legislation, etc.), history (important global events where a certain security institution or famous historical images were positioned), mentality (a set of national character traits); international authority (current activity to ensure the security in the world), mission and values.


Chernenko T. V., Candidate of Philosophical Science (PhD), the head of humanitarian security department, The National Institute for Strategic Studies

MAJOR CHARACTERISTICS OF PUBLIC DIPLOMACY IN THE SYSTEM OF STRATEGIC COMMUNICATIONS

The fundamental study of modern features of public diplomacy in the system of strategic communications reveals new prospects of its application in Ukraine as one of the effective tools in the prevention and resolution of conflicts in favor of the country national interests.

The aim of the article was the analysis of the principal characteristics of the correlation between public diplomacy and strategic communications concepts. In particular, considerable attention was paid to the extension of the means of public communications, which recently demonstrated a completely new, advanced application of «soft power» or «soft compulsion» (as defined by G.Sherra) with the aim of ensuring national security.

In the conditions of sharp changes in the geopolitical landscape of international relations and setting up the agenda for Ukraine, induced by hybrid war unleashed by Russia, public diplomacy and strategic communications require further urgent institutionalization in Ukraine to create the possibility for the state to use them as efficient tools to promote national interests.

The secondary and subsidiary role of public diplomacy should be left in the past. In case of qualitative and professional approach to public diplomacy; it should become the effective tool to promote a pragmatic foreign policy of Ukraine and one of the key instruments of domestic MFA in defending the national interests of Ukraine. At the same time, there is urgent need to analyse the actual principles of correlation of all information and communication activities in the framework of public diplomacy and at the angle of public relations (civil and military), and a detailed study of the application of the best examples of world government communication practices.


Mil’o V. Y., member of Transcarpathian agency of the Security Service of Ukraine

PROBLEMS OF LEGAL REGULATION OF THE ACTIVITIES OF «NEW MEDIA»

The lack of electronic media in the legal field gradually becomes a separate aspect of broader and global issues. From the development of digital technology, digital media transformed into the so-called new media, requires not only regulation, but also new approaches to their definition.

The subject of investigation is the legal regulation of online media and «new media» in the context of information security of Ukraine.

The aim of the article is a synthesis of existing approaches to determining the legal status of Internet media and «new media» and developing proposals to improve national legislation regarding their activities in our country.

The article deals with the problems of legal regulation of Internet Media and chaotic formation of «new media» in Ukraine. There was considered an international legislative experience in the field of legal regulation of online media and the current legislation of Ukraine in this sphere; it was analyzed the phenomenon of new media, their formation processes in Ukraine and the existing legal regulations of their activities.

As a result, the author noticed that information security threats not only exist, but they are constantly evolving and transforming in new challenges that require urgent resolution of legal principles and form of self-regulation and foresight, efficiency and strategic vision to address pressing issues. Special attention was noted on the urgency to balance between the approaches to resolving the problem, provided with the strategic component.


Milchenko O. M, deputy manager of Scientific-training Center of international peacekeeping activity Ivan Chernyakhovsky National Defense University of Ukraine

DESTRUCTIVE STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION OF RUSSIA (BASED ON THE MASS MEDIA MATERIALS)

The author provided analytic review of local and foreign mass media, studied their eventual influence on various target audiences. Based on three narratives such as «Russian Slavic orthodox civilization. Russia as an Orthodox cradle», «The Crimea is Russia», «Ukraine is an undesirable partner of the USA and western counties», the author came up to the conclusion on Russia’s proactive attitude in its destructive StratCom and disoriented influence on international community.

Modern hybrid warfare requires Ukraine to take active asymmetric information actions in its turn. These actions should be provided by: a) strategically defined information policy, b) a competent approach in human resources policy, c) expert analysis and information challenges forecast, d) asymmetric response to these challenges.

Mass media environment analysis had shown that aggressive Russian discourse had a nature of certain narratives broadcasting for different target audiences through various communication channels. In order to be effective, Ukrainian information actions, must meet the following requirements: a) to be a single strategy binding on all members of the communication process – public authorities, law enforcement agencies, mass media, etc; b) to focus not on the response but asymmetric preventive actions; c) to consider the impact of two communication streams - Western and Russian; d) to deliver Ukrainian attitude to both internal and external audiences via different communication channels; d) to shape the Ukrainian narratives that reveal real historical and social situation.


Cherevatyi S. V., Candidate of Political Science (PhD), the head of information agency, State Border Guard Service of Ukraine Patola V. B., the head of subdivision of service and work with «Boarder Guard of Ukraine» editional stuff, State Border Guard Service of Ukraine Khatamova T. Z., responsible officer of management subdivision IP center of telecommunication system and net of Main connection, automatization and information defense centre, State Border Guard Service of Ukraine

THE ACTIVITIES OF THE AGENCY-LEVEL MASS MEDIA OF THE STATE BORDER SERVICE OF UKRAINE IN THE CONTEXT OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE STRATEGIC COMMUNICATION CONCEPT

This article deals with the issue related to the effect of the organizational and legal component on the departmental mass media and PR units operating efficiency. The object of the study is to show the ways to develop and reform the units that are responsible for communication between the State Border service of Ukraine and the public to provide the effective fulfillment of the operative and combat activity of the units of the Border department. The authors analyzed the academic studies concerning the issues of interaction between the department and the mass media, the specific character of the tasks the State Border service information departments face, practice and methodology used for their realization during the last years.

The authors’ touches upon a number of problematic questions are: defining the most effective model of strategic communication in connection with the State Border service of Ukraine needs, the ways to adopt it to the local situation etc. To achieve a permanent results in image policy it is necessary to improve the legal support in the sphere of departmental mass media, to work out the strategic communication system according to concept of NATO, in the context of state policy and international agreements, while stressing the need to develop the military departmental editorships, TV and broadcasting studios, to ensure the work of the highly skilled military correspondents at all stages of the creative information process, from the stage of the conception and gathering information to the publication of prepared material in print editions or to broadcasting.


Zaruba O. H, Candidate of Military Science (PhD), associate professor, the National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine

PLANNING OF THE SPECIAL INFORMATION OPERATIONS

Planning of special information operations (SIO) of the state security sector units can be provided on the base of the general process of the operation planning according to the NATO standards. The principal terms in the operation planning are: the gravity centre, an operation line, the critical point, the direct and indirect approach, an operation pause, etc. In accordance with the NATO standards planning is divided into the following phases: initiation of a planning, orientation, working out an operation concept (plan), a revision and specification of the operation plan.

During the first phase the head of the operation forms a planning group and articulates the intention of the head of the operation. During the second phase the planning team assesses the received regulating documents and all the factors affecting the course of the respective operation fulfillment, and develops possible scenarios of the actions. During the third phase, on the basis of several worked out options, having compared those with the enemy’s options, the most appropriate option is to be selected, and the operation concept is to be developed. During the fourth phase, the SIO plan is made after a detailed development of an operation concept. The fifth phase is clarification and revision of the operation plan upon receiving new data for analysis.


Karpenko V. M., a writer, military interpreter, Master of Science in State Management, investigator in IT field, linkman and expert of radio show at the Ukrainian wireless.

INFORMATION WORK WITH THE LOCAL INHABITANTS ON THE TERRITORIES WHICH HAVE BEEN SET FREE FROM OCCUPATION AND NEIBOURING THE ZONE OF HOSTILITIES (BASED ON THE MATERIALS OF 2013–2014 EVENTS IN UKRAINE)

In 2013 intensification of confrontation between Russia and Ukraine was characterized by considerable Kremlin’s amplification Ukrainian authorities and by aggressive attempts splitting in Ukrainian society, from the beginning 2014 was developed into opened armed aggression on the Crimea, later took place on Donetsk and Lugansk regions of Ukraine and involved in terrorism in Donetsk and Lugansk with further military intervention, created terrorist quasi-states going by the name of the People's Republic of Donetsk and Lugansk (LNR-DNR). At the same time it was increased the Russian Federation’s information influence on the territory so-called LNR-DNR, Donetsk and Lugansk regions, and also on the other area of Ukraine.

The article dwells upon a concept of media war, methods which were used by Kremlin to perform an information influence on the territory of modern Ukraine, Russia’s royal times and USSR, and also goes into detail about the aim of busy information action in this direction; points out the Russian Federation influence of informational activity on formation (state) of Ukrainian citizen’s national consciousness for a long time.

Taking into consideration the results of visual information evaluation and communication with journalists, delegate of authority and inhabitants of various regions during official meetings and in everyday life, the author of the article analyzed the present situation especially on Donetsk and Lugansk regions, adjoining area of military operations, determined tendencies and levels of the Kremlin’s information attacks which were directed to total destruction of the Ukrainian statehood by Ukrainians, formulated the main theses of destructive information for Ukrainians; suggested the system of counteraction such attacks and principles that strengthen national information security.

In the conclusion there were presented the key questions that should be solved by organization of information work under condition of information confrontation.


Kozyura V. D., Candidate of Engineering Science (PhD), associate professor, the National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine Khoroshko V. O., Doctor of Engineering Science, professor of Safety information technologies department, Kyiv National Aviation University Kozyura V. D., Doctor of Engineering Science, professor of Safety information technologies department, Kyiv National Aviation University

ANALYSIS OF CYBER SECURITY OF THE INFORMATION SOCIETY

The gradual association of the informative systems (IS), network technologies and software resulted in cyberspace forming.

The conception of cyber wars conduction testifies to cyberspace importance; there are special structures in some world countries military establishment, intended to the fight conduction.

It was the reason of following problems:

1) appearance of new security threats both for the objects of important state infrastructure for citizens and society at large;

2) unprecedented disclosure of the personal data, important corporate resources, confidential and secret information;

3) the state safety sector transformation on the following directions:

– search and getting of information by perfection of methods and methods of organization and realization of attacks on IS, protected cryptosystems of opposing parties and automation of all concomitant to it processes;

– the information exchange by development the fundamentally new IS of the special setting;

– protection own informative resource from internal and external cyberattacks and threats.

The aim of the paper is to analyze the current state of informative society cyber security in the context of state informative safety providing; to systematize the basic ways to make the Ukraine system of cyber security perfect.

The classification of cybernetic interferences and threats, offered by CE Convention against cybercrime includes:

1) incidents against confidentiality, integrity and computer data and systems availability;

2) fraud and forgery, connected with computer usage;

3) incidents, related to illegal information layout in the networks;

4) incidents with copyrights.

This classification allows formalizing the noted types of actions, presenting them as a model which contains three main stages: studying the object of attack, the attack realization, hiding the attack tracks. Every stage includes the steps of informative exchange and attacks.

Nowadays such actions take a stand on the geopolitical competition of overwhelming majority of the world countries; it makes new tasks to security services and military powers and brings to the fore the problem of the informative confrontation.


Bondarenko O. O., Candidate of Philological Science (PhD), associate professor of Russian philology department, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv Hrechka S. O., 4-th course student, Institute of Philology, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv

MYTHOLOGICAL DIMENSION OF THE CONSCIENTAL WAR

The authors discussed the approaches to the consciental war, determined the myth as one of the most effective type of weapon, directed on the affection of ordinary citizen conscience. The coincidental war means the type of war, which has a purpose to affect and destroy some types of conscience. It can lead to destroying and reconstruction identities which make this type of conscience. Myth as a cultural phenomenon has functions: outlook (mythologic conscience can construct the world outlook of the person of definite cultural and historical period); adaptive-psychological (myth allows the person to adapt to social realm, to feel own membership of it; regulate and bring in harmony the person-nature-social world relations); sense forming (myth stipulates the cultural sense creating, allows person to put himself into the context of special sense reality, makes a definite sense matrix, which can be realized in the socio-cultural context); axiological (myth forms the definite value scale of phenomena and relations which could be between the person’s conscience and environment, saves the fundamental cultural values, reflecting their inevitable peculiarity); socially regulatory ( myth gives patterns of behaviour, moral and ethic principles and practical guidance to follow, wherethrough the society order organized and kept; makes a function of cultural values and social norms fastening; makes a world orientation system and provides spiritual unity of society) and integrate (myth provides the unity and entirety of society, collective and nation; regularizes the people’s behaviour, provides the coordination of perception and action, mental activity and behaviour of number separate individuals, forms the collective, generating group self-confidence and developing the criteria for self-identification, what provides unity and entirety of society, collective and nation).


Kutska O. M., Candidate of Historical Science, associate professor of tactics department, Faculty of Combat Arms, National Army Academy

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INFORMATION-PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCE OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION BEFORE AND ON THE INITIAL STAGE OF THE ANTITERRORIST OPERATION IN THE EEAST OF UKRAINE

One of the important issues in the course of battles, wars and conflicts that have occurred in human history was and remains an information security. Russian combat for the Crimea was preceded by information-psychological training as its population and residents of Ukrainian peninsula. Hybrid war in eastern Ukraine, which was one of the stages of long-term information operations of the official Moscow, opened the new realities and the importance of propaganda impact primarily on the civilian population in the conflict veiled in spring 2014 and within a counterterrorist operation of Ukrainian military forces in its south eastern regions. Our country was not fully prepared to fight in this space, which leads to study the relevance of the questions to critical awareness gaps and measures of counter-propaganda.

The article identifies key themes that whirled Russian mass media in order to create the required image information of the Putin’s regime for Ukraine. The first - the image of a certain part of Ukrainian as «enemies», another - as «we are». Second - the identification of the last Russian people and their history. Third – the pro-Russian Ukrainians suggestion opinion that the Russian Federation acts as a protector of their interests. Fourth – the pro-Russian incitement to armed opposition militants against current Ukrainian authorities and support them by «saber-rattling» of the Russian Armed Forces under the border of Ukraine.

During the survey the following conclusions, recommendations have been formed for the organization of the counter propaganda struggle by appropriate structures of Ukraine. First, certain types of information and psychological impact alone can not lead to the desired goal. Secondly, one of the main conditions for the effectiveness propaganda is its concentration - just a few of key topics. Thirdly, information counterattack must be operational and flexible to respond to the current needs of policy and fighting.


Prysyazhnyuk M. M., Candidate of Engineering Science, Senior Research Officer, associate professor, the National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine Khrystoforova O. F., student, Academic-Scientific Institute of information security, the National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine

THE INTERNET AS A FIELD OF SUGGESTION IN MODERN INFORMATION WARS

With the development of new information technologies and the considerable increase of the information amount in the media manipulation of human consciousness happens more often, and filtration the huge flow of information and protecting themselves from manipulative influences becomes more difficult. The new arena of suggestive manipulative influence in modern terms is the Internet.

The aim of the paper is to reveal the essence of suggestive manipulative effects in the Internet as an arena of modern information warfare from the standpoint of social communications. Thus, the following tasks of this paper are:

– the analysis of historic prerequisites of the Internet space development;

– the suggestive disclosure of the social communications aspect in the Internet;

– the suggestive technologies study of Internet information warfare.

They started to use the Internet global information network for the implementation of the suggestive manipulative influence on the world community and information warfare with the help of the latest information technology.

So, the Russian aggressive information war, conducted by its powerful propaganda machine, continues to apply the latest manipulative suggestive influences technology to somehow justify its aggressive actions against Ukraine.

Under such conditions, it’s necessary to take a number of urgent measures to counteract information threats effectively;

– to create an effective system of ensuring information and cyber security as a tool of external information threats counteraction;

– to develop and implement the regulatory support of cyber security management in the Internet space;

– to improve the system of training information security specialists at the educational institutions of Ukraine.


Slukhai N. V., Doctor of Philological Science, professor of Russian Philology department, Institute of Philology, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv

NEO-MYTHS IN THE VIRTUAL SPACE OF MODERN UKRAINE

Neomyths are handcrafted texts of a nation’s sacred pseudohistory, which explains their extreme effectiveness as tools of informational warfare, including the ongoing war against Ukraine. Neomyths are the most influential simulacra, and studying, classifying and reviewing them are the most important objectives of counterpropaganda.

The contemporary postmodern information flow has a specific nature, which is intensive, chaotic, pseudo-dialog-based, narrative, discursive, omnipresent and collage-based. The informational jigsaw of every newsday in the contemporary worldview warfare contains a large number of simulacra, including neomyths which radiate viral content and cloned memes. A neomyth is a symbolic idea implanted into a nation’s collective memory that has a high social and cultural resonance. It is a pillar of the virtual informational narrative which ensures a critical perception from the side of the person being manipulated is effectively blocked. Neomyths may be old and new, innate and constructed, developed and simple, internally or externally aimed or universal, as well as isolated or continual. They remodel the world on a very harsh grid, morphing unverified information into sacred knowledge through complex labeling. Neomyths introduce into consciousness suggestive information, emotive viral content implants and verifies this information, and sensory-laden memes clone it in an imaginative way. Neomyths, viral content and memes are trance-inducing tools.


Snitko O. S., Doctor of Philological science, professor, the head of Russian Philology department, Taras Shevchenko National University of Kyiv

PROJECTS FOR TOTAL MANIPULATIONS IN THE INFORMATION SPACE OF UKRAINE

In the information space of Ukraine the projects for total manipulation are launched. These projects aimed to promote the ideology of «Russian world» and use the manipulation technologies in huge quantities, which are hidden under the propaganda of goodness, humanity, unity, and disinterested help. The purpose of such projects is to make the large-scale influence on people conciseness by verbal and nonverbal suggestion methods. One of them is so-called «social movement» «AllatRa», its activity is directly connected with Internet recourses usage. The ideologist of this movement is a secret person – Anastasia Novykh – the «author» of number of books, laid out in the Web publicly available; the huge number of people was forced to read them. In the paper it was analyzed the text of the Anastasia Novykh work with rather manipulative headline «Prediction of the future and the truth about past and nowadays». It had been proved this book was a suggestive pathogenic text, which destructive influenced the psycho emotional condition of the reader. As a main method of suggestion in the text it was used its specific rhythmic organization, which stipulated two opposite functional-textual groups of language means. They were formed by the same type semantics issues repetition (same words, issues which were close or correlated in content at the level of association, word derivates, etc.) and relevant letter-sound structure (lexical repeat provided by phonetic one). Suggestion was characterized by so-called key (or pragmatically marked) issues, which meant dominant sense. Negative-emotional disruption of the reader actively provided suggestion. Dominant sense of Anastasia Novykh «Predictions» absolutely contradicted the pronounced «humanity» principles of «AllatRa», which in fact had a function to bait people.


Khaba R. S., member of The Security Service of Ukraine

DESTRUCTIVE INFORMATION INFLUENCES IN THE MODERN REALITY

In the 21st century information warfare has become one of the main methods of waging military operations while effective ways to counteract information warfare have not been developed yet.

The problem of providing information security of Ukraine and counteracting the destructive information impacts is urgent today, as the main threats defined in the Strategy of National Security, approved by the President of Ukraine on May, 26, 2015 # 287/2015, are waging of the information warfare against Ukraine and lack of coherent national policy in the sphere of communication, as well as low level of the society media culture.

Besides, one of the most urgent problems in the system of providing national security of Ukraine is counteracting the information-psychological warfare waged by the aggressor country which has become systematic, well-planned and lengthy.

Creating the alternative and distorted information picture of the world by foreign mass media in terms of the current situation in Ukraine, degrading of the Ukrainian language and culture, falsification of the Ukrainian history etc. are ways of waging information warfare against our country and justifying their own aggressive policy directed at undermining social and political stability with the aim to destroy the Ukrainian state and occupy its territory.

The situation in the media space of Ukraine is characterized by the presence of representations of foreign media structures or domestic mass media which are controlled by the former; they follow lead of foreign policy directions of their countries and provide information support for the leaders of foreign countries in their relation to Ukraine and its international interests, first of all geopolitical and economic ones.

It is worthy to mention that internet recourses, social networks and blogosphere play an important role in waging information wars alongside traditional mass media.

While applying the policy of «soft power» towards Ukraine and its partners, the aggressor country uses the representatives of the so-called «fifth column» in Ukraine as well as «left antiglobalists» and «right ultranationalists» parties which are financed from abroad, experts who come from extremist and marginal surroundings – all those people who have not found themselves in the political life of the country and are in need of «external influence».

The information security can be provided in case there is a well-structured system of counteracting that involves government and non-government organizations; besides, immediate preventive measures within the Ukrainian media sector must be accomplished.



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