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Gorovyi V. M.   State and nation in the information society

State and nation in the information society

The article examines the legal prospect of statehood dynamics t as guarantor of national development under conditions of globalization and informatization processes activation.

The aim of the article is consideration of modern state role in national development, organizational and legal perspectives of ensuring national information space transformation for the benefit of the development of sovereign Ucraine.

Since in modern social practice there is an actual delay in response to external and internal information challenges to national development that grow and multiply under the influence of informatization and globalization intensification process approaches to law-making and law enforcement activities of the state require fundamental renewal.

With information technology development, communication opportunities for computerized part of the society, Internet economy and politics development the appropriate Internet legislation as well as law enforcement structures that ensure the compliance of this legislationt should be in progress

At the stage of new information challenges, modern state even without being the leading globalizer can respond by system of organizational and legal measures on the new level of self-organization, structural transformation, development of modern information communications system that provide new vitality of this public institution.

Dovgan О. D. – Candidate of Judicial Sciences, Senior Researcher

Some aspects of the study methodology of the information security issues

This article examines the issue of methodological foundations of information security problems study at the disciplinary level based on the theory of security systems and the interaction of both. It is the interaction of systems, which are information bases, communications and threatening information constructions that can start up the process of system disintegration. The security is defined just by complex of information system quality estimation criteria.

In general, information security as a branch of science in compliance with its subject depth exploration develops its own specific methods of research and a system of techniques and principles promoting effective development of research process.

The article deals with techniques such as modeling, expert methods, methods of linear and dynamic programming, systems analysis, the method of brainstorming, forecasting etc.

The practice of information security provision indicates that there are problems in determining the order on the basis of a large number of alternatives. The problems classification allows to determine basic techniques needed to solve a wide range of poorly structured and unstructured problems with many criteria by using the method of division of alternatives into groups according to their featurs or determining the best alternative. Nature, scale and complexity of the subject and information about its development as well as depth indicator of prognostication are of primary importance for method selection.

Talalay D. V.,   Momotenko T. D. – Candidate of Judicial Sciences

Classification of money laundering: current situation and prevention methods

The article provides analysis of up-to-date national and international practices and methods of money laundering prevention and counteraction. The authors offer ways of upgrading both law enforcement and regulatory authorities activities when the issue of money laundering is considered.

Analysis of the recent research and publications demonstrated that further scientific advancement of this problem is a matter of current interest.

Therefore, the aim of the article is to conduct the analysis of current approaches to money laundering classification as well as to work out a number of recommendations to improve money laundering prevention and counteraction activities.

The authors  came to the conclusion that further development of national legislation to prevent money-laundering  and immediate  formation of the Anti-Corruption Bureau of Ukraine are of paramount importance as this will allow to speed up significantly Ukraine's integration into international cooperation system to fight organized crimes including money laundering and terrorism financing.

On the national level, the efficiency of money laundering preventive activities depends on coordinated interaction of law enforcement and regulatory authorities. Money laundering prevention involves continuous analysis and generalization of money laundering methods, means and techniques, as well as the disclosure of this information to the reporting entities, law enforcement and other state bodies responsible for money laundering and terrorism financing prevention.

Tikhomyrov O. O. – Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Senior Researcher

Information violations: legal-theoretical conception

The current legal science actively uses the terms, reflecting wrongful acts in some way related to information: information offenses, computer offenses, information technology offenses, information security offenses, cyber offenses etc. Thus there is no single universally accepted theoretical construction as well as there is no approved definition of the notion ‘information offense’, it’s not decided what its objective criteria and allocation among other offenses are.

The results of the genuine situation and the available scientific developments of various types of legal sciences analysis, especially of information law, make it possible to position norms in the law system that define information offenses as a complex legal institution that provides various types of legal responsibility (administrative, criminal, civil, etc.). Thus the main criteria to distinguish information offenses is the presence of information components in their structural composition: 1) as the object of offense – in case the wrongful act counters information relationships or subject of offense – information, information tools and systems; 2) as an element of the objective aspect of the offense which indicates the method, means of a wrongful act –in case it was committed with the employment of information technologies and tools.

The main types of information offenses are: media and information resources offenses; information space offences; the information infrastructure offences; other offenses committed with the employment of information technologies.


Maruschak A. I. – Doctor of Judicial Sciences, Professor, Solodka O. M. – Candidate of Judicial Sciences, Senior Researcher

Some aspects of state information policy formation and its realization in modern environment

This article explores the features of the formation and implementation of the state information policy of Ukraine in modern conditions, factors influencing this process, its deficiencies and possible options for improvement.

In view of our study, it can be argued that under an information burst in the society the role of valid and adequate state information policy increases. It aims to satisfy and protect balanced information interests of the state, society and man.

In general, the scientific approaches to the content of the notion «state information policy»  varies from the global management of information sphere to the contracted understanding of the «information policy» notion as a process ensuring  mass-media activity.

At this stage, Ukraine is in great  need of effective information policy, which should take into account the objective realities not only of the modern information sphere, but of the security as well, because information is used now as a tool of unlawful and negative impact on Ukrainian society.

However, the authors stressed the point that the legal and structural aspects  of the state information policy should be improved. For one thing, the problem concerns the adoption of legislation that would define the concept of "state information policy", its main components, etc., for another thing, you should resolve the problem and determine the authorized functions of the public bodies in this area, including the Ministry of Information Policy, as well as the coordination of public information policy of Ukraine in general.

Panchenko V. M. – Candidate of Engineering Sciences, Senior Researcher

Structural and functional analysis of countering the information aggression

Over the last year in order to counteract information aggression of Russia against Ukraine changes to national legislation in the field of information security were made, some central government bodies were reorganized, cooperation with NGOs in the field of information technology was established. As a result the redistribution of powers between different bodies assigned to protect the Ukrainian information space was made. Thus, the current state of public bodies entrusted with the task to counteract information aggression requires scientific research.

The purpose of the article is to determine public authorities entrusted with the task of counteracting information aggression and their new functions by analyzing the existing legal framework of Ukraine.

Analysis of the national regulatory and leagal framework indicates that now the task of  counteracting  information aggression entrusted to:

  • government agencies that shape information policy: Ministry of Information Policy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, State Committee for Television and Radio Broadcasting of Ukraine;
  • regulatory and supervisory agencies in the field of broadcasting and  telecommunications: National Council of Ukraine on Television and Radio Broadcasting, National Commission for State Regulation of Communications and Informatization;
  • institutions of security and defense sector: Ministry of Defense of Ukraine, Security Service of Ukraine, State Service for Special Communications and Information Protection of Ukraine.

However, today the state has lost the function to expertise information products containing incitement to breach constitutional order, territorial integrity, propaganda of war, fascism, national and religious hatred used by Russia in information aggression against Ukraine.

It is necessary to distribute powers between newly established Ministry of Information Policy of Ukraine and State Committee for Television and Radio Broadcasting of Ukraine (for the purpose to develop information policy and functioning of government electronic information resources) and Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine (regarding distribution of socially important information abroad) .

The growing influence of mass media in the structure of social and political communication and transferring state broadcasters under authority of National Public Broadcasting Company of Ukraine requires establishing fruitful cooperation of public bodies with civil society for information aggression counteracting.

There is the problem of security and defense bodies activity coordination in counteracting information aggression, so we recommend to put this function on Information Analytical Center of National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine.

Further research will be directed to solving these problems.

Pohrebytskyi M. L. – Candidate of State Administration

Lustration and personnel policy in Ukraine: regularities and contradictions of their implementation in the system of special-mission law enforcement agencies

This article deals with personnel policy peculiarities and lustration process of law enforcement bodies of special purpose of Ukraine. The author analyzes investigations and publications on this subject matter in general. He studies legal, political, philosophy, and social scientists existing viewpoints of procedural grounds and consequences of authorities cleaning. The author examines patterns and contradictions in the implementation of lustration legislation and personnel policy in law enforcement agencies of special purpose. Making use of historical and legal facts and approaches the scientist tries to develop arguments for the grounds and procedures of lustration implementation. The legal status of persons coming within lustration and grounds for lustration exemption persons of certain categories are considered. Scientist analyzes stages of the Law of Ukraine "On cleaning power," he researches existing viewpoints of known lawyers, human rights activists and analyses available expert opinions, commentaries to various versions of the draft law. Legal and historical approaches were applied. Historical experience of similar legislative activities and previous experience of special services cleaning of foreign states were studied.

The author stresses the need to take into account legal facts of self-cleaning of the national security service officers who took the Oath of fealty to the Ukrainian people and proved their long-term loyalty and selfless work according to this oath. The article emphasizes the obligation of new personnel policy to ensure principles of legitimacy, transparency and progressiveness in national special services.

methods, means and measures for restricted information organisation legal protection

Blahodarnyi A. M. – Candidate of Judicial Sciences, Associate Professor

Рecularites of the application of administrative preventive measures in the information sector under the conditions of hybrid war

There is no definition of the ‘hybrid warfare’ term in international legal instruments. This concept does not exist either in Military Doctrine of Ukraine that designates national system of governing views on causes, nature and character of modern military conflicts.

The scientific literature defines the ‘hybrid warfare term as war of utterly different types and methods of warfare used in a coordinated manner to achieve common goals. Typical components of hybrid war are:

– classical warfare techniques ( military men in uniform, military equipment etc.);

– irregular armed groups (insurgents, terrorists, guerrillas etc.);

–information and cyber war.

For both military and information components of hybrid war is very important to take preventive measures, including measures of administrative warning to combat illegal activities.

Measures of administrative warning can be defined as a set of organizational, psychological, physical and other instruments designed to detect and prevent crime, to guarantee state security, public order and personal security.

These instruments are diverse, used in various areas of public life and by different agencies (police, state border protection bodies, income and charges bodies, Security Service of Ukraine, control and supervisory authorities (public inspections) etc.).

The main measures of administrative warning eligible to be applied by law enforcement officials of Ukraine to counteract offenses in the information sector should comprise such measures as: prevention of offenses; examination (personal examination, examination of personal luggage, vehicles, various objects); official warning hereof the inadmissibility of illegal behaviour; visiting companies, institutions and organizations; entering land, residential and other private premises of citizens; submit proposals to eliminate causes and conditions that abet offenses.

Zhuravel V. I. – Doctor of Medical Sciences, Professor Shepeta O. V. – Candidate of Judicial Sciences

Estimate of management efficiency in the protection of classified information

This article considers five areas of methodological approaches: logical and management, statistical and mathematical, financial and economic, social and psychological, specific and official (production activity).

For each of the areas of methodological approaches there are five groups of performance criteria directive, priority, overall, additional, integrated.

The article suggests the following indicators of management efficiency estimate: human, financial, information and other resources; technical facilities; information and computer technology; software, etc. (social and psychological aspects of the situation are considered).

The article considers general requirements and recommendations of general management (Mueller’s number, Hreykunas’ criterion, linear-functional type of relationships and so on.), as well as ensuring positive motivation carrying out the duties and psychological climate.

Kravchenko O. M. – Post-graduate Student of the Administrative, Financial and Economic Law Department of the Academy of Labor, Social Relations and Tourism

Foreign experience in the legal protection of trade secrets 

Protection from competitive secret service, in other words  commercial secrets of business entities and its protection becomes the first priority because of  the growing economic competition in the conditions of market relations development in Ukraine. The development of economic competition, the need to gain advantages in the market set the task to the business entities to protect commercial secrets by legal means.

The current legislation does not provide for special measures of protection from competitive secret service, does not specify a particular mechanism to implement the rights of commercial secrets holders. The weakness of the current legislation creates difficulties and problems for business entities that possess commercial secrets, it limits the implementation and protection of their right to such information. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the national legislation on the basis of the experience of foreign countries with advanced economies.

The research analysis. Detailed analysis of the normative legal acts of foreign countries with advanced economies is a basis of this article. The analysis allowed us to ascertain the significant gaps in the legislation of Ukraine in the sphere of commercial secret and the imperfection of the practice of public authorities in this field.

The relevance of the analysis of the legal protection of commercial secrets has increased in connection with the prospects of Ukraine's accession to the European Union, which requires the compliance with the Agreement on commercial use of intellectual property TRIPS, in particular, with regard to commercial secrets.

The aim of the research is to examine theoretical and practical issues on legal regulation of relations concerning the protection of the commercial information in foreign countries. On this basis, the main purpose of this article is to point out possible directions of the implementation in national practice the experience of foreign countries in the sphere of commercial lsecrets protection .

CONCLUSOIN. Promising areas of the scientific research is the analysis of foreign experience on commercial secrets legal regulation with the view of its possible implementation in the legislation of Ukraine

Shlapachenko V. M. – Candidate of Judicial Sciences, Senior Researcher

Espionage as activity to get information

With the development of inter-state relations and sharply increased competition between the states the issue to protect the top secret information which gives certain benefits to the country, and sometimes secure its very existence, became the matter of vital importance. This factor  brought  into life the legislation  prohibiting   espionage,  as a form of reconnaissance aimed at  collecting such information.

Since early Middle Ages and almost to the end of the XIX century this information concerned only the military sphere (the number of troops, their organization, armament, maintenance, etc.). Later, with the development of public relations and state institutions some production technologies and scientific discoveries that gained an advantage over its neighbors began to assume the status of secret, but the information that could be used effectively in the military sphere, as military way of redistribution of territories, spheres of influence and sales markets , had been of high priority for a long time.

The defining features of espionage are:

- it’s a component of intelligence activities, with the purpose of getting secret information (state secrets) that is professionally protected;

- illegal  hand over (illegal ways of collecting the illicit transfer) of classified information;

-it’s is committed in the interests of the recipients of a data transfer – foreign countries (organizations) that are the sponsors of the activities and users of the information;

 -it’s  banned by the legislation of the state - the owner of the classified information;

 -it  causes  or  threatens to cause damage to the vital interests of the state ( its complete and timely implementation) in areas of the activity connected with the circulation of classified information.

truments are diverse, used in various areas of public life and by different agencies (police, state border protection bodies, income and charges bodies, Security Service of Ukraine, control and supervisory authorities (public inspections) etc.).

The main measures of administrative warning eligible to be applied by law enforcement officials of Ukraine to counteract offenses in the information sector should comprise such measures as: prevention of offenses; examination (personal examination, examination of personal luggage, vehicles, various objects); official warning hereof the inadmissibility of illegal behaviour; visiting companies, institutions and organizations; entering land, residential and other private premises of citizens; submit proposals to eliminate causes and conditions that abet offenses.

Hryhoriev V. I., the Candidate of Juridical Sciences


In the information society the information-psychological warfare is an integral part of political relations and the main tool of political coercion and achievement of political goals. The information-psychological warfare is a factor, which may significantly change the orientation of the geo-political processes and relations in the information society. It also may lead to the shift in the geopolitical center of attraction of national interests related to the subjects of geopolitical competition in the information sector of the countries, which are leaders in the development of information and telecommunication technologies; countries which are controlling strategically important routes of information transmission and basic information flows, used in their own interests. Moreover, the consequences of actions and strikes of information-psychological warfare can change the structure of the information space (such as stream routes and position of information flows units of gravity, as well as the priority and monopoly in the development and implementation of advanced information and telecommunication technologies of some subjects of geopolitical competition as to others). It can result in alienation of the territory of the state and the redistribution of other types of strategic resources. These changes will inevitably lead to changes in the overall stable picture of the geopolitical relationships between the subjects of the geopolitical competition and upset the balance of geopolitical interests that will necessarily affect the security status of each of the countries and territories under the consideration.

Dereko V. N., Candidate of Political Sciences


Nowadays information possession enables the definite subject to control the solution of many problems of the international community. On the one hand, information has become the negative factor, which can lead to emergencies, large-scale accidents, military conflicts (including defeats) and even disrupt state governance. On the other hand, the effective utilization of information helps to develop all spheres of the state functioning, including a separate object, and eventually leads to significant positive results of its activity.

Possession of valuable information makes the authorized subject responsible for its preservation and protection against possible external influence such as various kinds of factors, events and technologies, that can be both intentional and accidental.

It should be mentioned that rapid development of information technologies rises practical importance of information security on a new level. However, it understates the comprehension of the nature of information, forms and methods of its revealing, ways of its influence on the development of the society, state and the object of information security on the whole.

The «nformation security» concept includes: objects of information security, threats to information security objects and their protection, based on an array of forces, means, methods and ways of information security.

The main objectives of the relevant subjects to ensure information security are: the elimination of information security installations threats and minimization of possible losses that may be caused by the specific threats.

Actions aimed at the creation of secured information leakage channels (preconditions to its leakage) and directly at the leakage itself can cause information threat to the object.

Ivanchenko Ye. V., candidate of engineerings sciences, associate professor, professor of Safety of information technologies department of the Kyiv National Aviation University
Kozyura V. D., candidate of engineerings sciences, associate professor of National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine
Khoroshko Vo. O., doctor of engineerings sciences, professor, professor of Safety of information technologies department of the Kyiv National Aviation University


A task of determination of quality optimal indexes of control system by information resources security of automated systems is one of the major problems of planning the complex systems of information security. It depends on complication of the similar systems, presence of enormous amount of the varied parameters, complication of calculation of quality indexes. In addition, the determined quality indexes must not only provide the optimality of objective function but also the stability of functioning of the security system in the wide range of external unfavorable influences. In this connection the control system of information security can be examined from position of theory of the systems of automatic control, in which indexes are set as integral quadratic estimations (IQE) of management error. A problem consists in that existent methods of calculating IQE do not take into account the errors of determination of quality indexes, as well as vectorial character of these indexes. On this basis the purpose of this paper is development of algorithms of optimization of parameters of steady control system by protection while using vectorial objective functions.

A forming method of IQE on the basis of certain gravimetric coefficients of estimations of parameters on the desired time of establishment and built-in transmission functions is suggested; the algorithms of calculating IQE are worked out as well as its minimizations in vectorial presentation, using the modified formula of Kac and method of Osrem for the systems of random order; a vectorial penalty function is offered and the algorithm of its calculation is worked out for the reflection of degree of violation of terms of stability of control system by protection on the criterion of Rauss-Gurvitc.

Nechaiev A. A., a post-graduate student of the Institute of special communication and information protection NTUU «KPI»


In the fight against the racketeering and terrorism, knowledge about the structure and the organization of criminal networks is of fundamental importance for both the investigation and the development of efficient strategies to prevent and restrain crimes. Intelligence agencies exploit information obtained from the analysis of large amounts of heterogeneous data deriving from various informative sources including the records of phone traffic, the social networks, surveillance data to acquire knowledge about criminal networks and initiate accurate and destabilizing actions.

In this context, visual representation techniques coordinate the exploration of the structure of the network together with the metrics of social network analysis. Nevertheless, the utility of visualization tools may become limited when the dimension and the complexity of the system under analysis grow beyond certain terms. In this paper we show how we employ some interactive visualization techniques to represent criminal and terrorist networks reconstructed from phone traffic data, namely foci, fisheye and geo-mapping network layouts.

These methods allow the exploration of the network through animated transitions among visualization models and local enlargement techniques in order to improve the comprehension of interesting areas. By combining the features of the various visualization models it is possible to gain substantial enhancements with respect to classic visualization models, often unreadable in those cases of great complexity of the network.

In this paper the theoretic model of detecting and analysis of criminal networks, based on statistical data of elephone contacts is introduced.

Savchenko D. S., a post-graduate student of the Nation Academy of SSU


The actuality of the theoretical bases of automatic processing of unstructured texts system models formation issue is based on disparity between the accumulated large amounts of unstructured textual information and outdated methods of its processing. For today various approaches to the formalization of natural language are known, but until now they failed to work 3 out the «universal» model that could accurately approximate the natural language and would have been perfectly adapted for different tasks.

As a natural language is characterized by semiotic and semantic multidimensionality (there is no clear link between the sign and its meaning), mathematical and linguistic models of automatic processing of unstructured texts on the semantic evel should take into account this multiplicity.

Unstructured texts characteristics (human natural language rating, the lack of formalized features of structural organization, the presence of accidental errors, content uncertainty) influence the requirements formation for the «ideal» model of subject area.

In particular, considering all this, the models requirements can be defined as follows: 1) the model flexibility as for human languages; 2) the dynamic development of linguistic formation standards; 3) vague merits to compare the text with probable distribution of its results; 4) an automatic formation of word forms base for each language; 5) basing on the rinciples of probability semantics and T. Bayes theorem while analyzing text; 6) formation for each language an «explanation history» of the previous texts on the results of semantic analysis; 7) converse usage of an «explanation history» of the previous texts in the process of the semantic analysis of the new texts.

It is practice that will give the opportunity to different hypothetical models to compare and choose the most simple and accurate among them.

Arkhypov A. E., Professor, Doctor of Technical Sciences, National Academy of the SSU
Arkhipova Ye. O., Associate professor, PhD in Philosophy, National Technical University of Ukraine «Kyiv Polytechnic Institute»


A way to determine the optimal volume of investment into the system of information security that takes into account the real mechanisms of the development and implementation of information security threats and risks is outlined.

The article analyzes the problem of determination of the maximum amount of investment into the information security. The approach of Gordon-Loeb, which justified the limit investment into the information security is studied. Publications containing materials related to the exposure and the development of this approach are analyzed. It is shown that this approach does not ensure univocal answer. The reason for this is a subjective formal-approximation way of defining the model, which is a basis for the solution. This leads to the multiplicity of possible models and, as the result, to the multiplicity of the solutions.

An approach to solve the problem of determining the amount of investment into the system of information protection, which is based on study of the model of information risks is offered. The formation of its structure and parameters is based on the use of information concerning the actual mechanisms of the development and implementation of information threats, in particular, on economical and value model, which is used to estimate the probability of successful realization of the attack on information system vulnerability.

The paper proposes the estimation of the maximum amount of investment in information security. This investment amounts to 25 % of the value of the protected information resource (or losses arising from the implementation of the threat to this resource). It is noted that the in the case of application of high-performance technology/decisions in the system of information security the level of investment may be reduced to 11–13 %. The prospects of models application based on motivation and resource relations which are typical to the attack-defence situation in the information sphere are considered. Conditions under which protection is ineffective are defined.

Golovin А. Yu., a post-graduate student of the National Technical University of Ukraine, Kyiv Polytechnic Institute


A covert channel is illicit transfer data, thus breaking the protection policy of a system. A network covert channel is a covert communication by hiding covert messages in to overt network packets. Any shared resource will probably be used as a covert channel. In recent years with the development of various hiding methods, network covert channel has become a new kind of threat for network security. A covert channel is an unintended design within legitimate communication whose motto is to leak information as a part of rudimentary protocols. In fact, most detection systems can detect hidden data in the payload, but struggle to cope with data hidden in the IP and TCP packet headers. The vast number of protocols in internet seems ideal as a high-bandwidth vehicle for covert communication. Due to unwanted and malicious nature of covert channel applications and as it poses a serious security threat to network, it is recommended to detect covert channels efficiently. The huge amount of data transmitted over internet using TCP/IP protocols makes it ideal as carrier for covert information. Covert channel attacks become a potential threat to the internet. Covert channel using unused combination off lag fields of TCP/IP header, reserved fields or modification of some header fields can be easily detected. Detecting covert channels embedded in ISNs and IP IDs are the most difficult covert channels to be detected due to their random behavior. Proposed system detects covert channel in TCP ISN and IP ID, using the NaïveBayesian classifier in more efficient manner.

Kovalchuk S. P., Candidate of Engineering Sciences (Ph.D.), Senior Researcher of ISEE SSU, The Ukrainian scientific and research institute of special equipment and forensic expertise of the Security Service of Ukraine


It is known that the evaluation of the scientific, research organization or institution can be formed by the results of the expertise. Well-known approach to forming such an assessment approach based on the methods of aggregation and ranking of alternatives multi-sign near ideal situations and sequential aggregation states classified.

The above mentioned methods only order (ranks) multi-sign objects on the criterion of the relative proximity to the supposedly best facility, but do not make a priori recommendations and guidelines on the prevention, avoidance and elimination of errors, deficiencies and failures in their activities.

With a given (fixed) index of relative proximity to the supposedly the best object the back solution to ordering multi-sign objects is sought on the basis of mathematically transformed equation index based on relative proximity of ordered scales. Thus, the term additive eliminates the intermediate values within the range of experts and ordered scales and makes it arbitrary within these limits.

The ordering grading scale from the best to the worst value gives special meaning to the leftmost nonzero value, because it determines the best estimate at the selected scale. Therefore, the implementation of arbitrary choice of intermediate and extreme values of fixed selection should be based on the regulating documents. Thus, conditions are created for testing recommendations and guidelines in the legal plane.

Theoretical analysis of decision feedback coupled with the possibility of arbitrary choice of intermediate values allowed to mould the method of back solution of organizing multi-sign objects which has the following steps: 1) relative proximity to the hypothetically best object is given; 2)with mathematically transformed equation index based on relative proximity of ordered scales the initial back solution is found; 3) the initial back solution by implementing arbitrary choice of intermediate and fixed choice of extreme values based on relevant guidance documents is changed; 4) the list of ordered scales of minimum requirements by discarding values to the right of the leftmost nonzero value is got; 5) recommendations and guidelines on the basis of a list of minimum requirements are worked out.

Obvious property of the transformed equation of relative proximity index to impose requirements on the number of assessments scales and relative importance ratio of a particular criterion requires further research.

The practical implementation of the formulated method and the results of further research will help to prevent and combat corruption in the national system and increase the level of information security of a person, society and state.

Korkach Ihor Vitalijovych, senior teacher of National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine
Alekseyenko Artur Serhiyovych, student of National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine


Nowadays, a lot of personal information can be obtained from public sources. Experts say that in cyberspace nothing disappears and almost everything is available. It can take a long time analyzing and looking for data using traditional methods. That is why the automated search for necessary information became so popular.

The authors describe a method of creating and developing their own software, which, using the public Internet service is able to quickly and efficiently find and organize data about a person. This software package uses several features to improve the quality of the obtained result from search engines.

Authors have developed the module for analyzing the content of social networks. As it is known, it contains most of the information the average person writes about him/herself. The developed app is able to download not only opened to the public information from the user’s page, but also the hidden one. Special attention was paid to analyzing the activity of a person in a social network, for example, making "likes" and comments in communities. A possibility to analyze the tag of geolocation in the uploaded pictures is outlined as well.

Lutsenko V. M., National Technical University of Ukraine, Kyiv Polytechnic Institute, PTI, Department of Physical and technical protection of information


The problem of determining the structure and properties of a propagation medium and electromagnetic waves carrier, which is capable of transferring a bit- quantum of information signals is considered. It provides absolute degree of confidential information protection.

The physical vacuum as a medium of physical fields formation and related processes of their interaction and distribution must be defined in the model representation. For this purpose, the concept of vacuum structural elements – basens is introduced in this article for the first time. This allows you to create a new mechanical, quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic model for largescale and subatomic structure of matter. In fact, it is the construction of a quantum-mechanical and thermodynamic model of subatomic structure of matter, the definition of the properties of elementary particles in order to find the elementary particle itself.

A variety of existing theories as of the structure of the Universe is discussed in brief. No theory or model is perfect, i.e. it can not explain all its phenomena that are observed now, without mutual contradictions. Furthermore, the information «materializes» more actively only on the condition that it is not present on the list of theories and paradigms (a set of fundamental scientific arrangements, conceptions and terms accepted by the scientific community and uniting its members). In fact, it’s necessary to answer the question: do all these theories complement each other or do they compete with each other? This paper proposes reconciliation of the existing theories.

It demonstrates that this is possible if we present a model of physical vacuum in the form of electrons in state and spacious and thermodynamic collapse. This electron is regarded as elementary particle, while a place and role of other known particles, including elementary is revealed. Conditions for a bit-quantum communications are formulated.

The need for discrete mathematics as a vehicle to describe the results of physical research is proven. Thus, for the first time, it is proposed to use α-number system in which α=1 ⁄137·10-57. Due to this an approach to clarify World constants is shown

It is shown that cryptographic approaches to data protection makes it possible to define the limits of the achievable level of cryptographic protection of information. Increasing complexity of cryptographic algorithms due to the length or the number of encryption keys gets limitation. Theoretically, their further increase beyond the actual large quantities does not increase their chance, that is it does not improve the quality of encryption.

Hotyan О. A., technical directorn of «WisdomWell» company


A large amount of information messages of Internet media news makes the perception of the most pressing and important current events impossible. Therefore, to improve the efficiency of informing, the news agencies use methods of compressed representation of news content throughout the day. Principles for such methods are the grouping algorithms (classification) of news by linguistic basis, (the similarity of vocabulary) .

Reviews of classical approaches to the classification of documents and some improvements presented in the works of Amons A.A., Yanov Y.O., Bezpalov I.O., Lande D.V., Furashev V.N., Braichevskiy S.M. and other scientists. The result of the classification is a list of «theme events» .

A variety of existing theories as of the structure of the Universe is discussed in brief. No theory or model is per. The purpose of our work is obtaining algorithm of classifying newsgroups that takes into account both lexical and meaningful similarity. Such groups we call «theme of the day».

In the article the determination «theme of the day» is given as a construction that takes into account the lexical and meaningful signs of the group of the related documents. We have reviewed the known solutions to the task of classification of documents, on the basis of which some modifications of general algorithm are proposed, as well as separate constituents of classification of great number of the received messages from the Internet MASS-MEDIA. The algorithm of the "theme of day" construction is proposed. The algorithm is performed by applying a two-level classification of news (option of K-nearest neighbours method) selected during the day. At the first level messages are grouped into «stories of events» by the similarity of vocabulary. On the second level, «theme events», algorithm combines in the «theme day» on the basis of the classification of messages by the meaning and contents, that are included in different themes.

The given results of testing the offered algorithm represent its efficiency and informativity for the compressed reflection of the news content of large collection of incoming messages. This enables to direct further research on the identifying the information influence through the Internet media.

Yakovliev S. V., senior lecturer, Department of mathematical methods of information security, Institute of Physics and Technology, National Technical University of Ukraine, Kyiv Polytechnic Institute


Fault attacks are the class of active side-channel attacks on cryptosystems. An analyst has additional possibilities to break cryptosystem (for example, to find an encryption key) due to capability to cut in encryption process and to cause faults. There are some approaches to construct such attacks on Feistel ciphers, but few of open publications dedicated to national encryption standard DSTU GOST 28147:2009 (GOST cipher) can be found.

In this article we propose fault attack on GOST cipher, which generalizes existing approaches in case of using bitwise and modular additions with round key in Feistel scheme. Practical examination of avalanche maps of GOST cipher gives us a potential of effective implementation of proposed attack for GOST-like ciphers with faults in the last seven-eight rounds of encryption.

We consider different fault models – a model with fixed fault position and a model with random fault position in particular. Faults with fixed position of last two rounds allow to recover single tetrads of round keys with minimal amount of statistical data, but other tetrads in this case may be unrecoverable in general. At the same time faults with fixed position in long-range rounds take more statistics, but any tetrad of round key can be recovered with prominent possibility (up to 0.7 on average).

Model of random position faults demands much more statistical data and does not allow a guaranteed full recovery of all tetrads of round keys, but recovering single tetrads in this model is satisfactory. Acquired experimental data can be used for boundary conditions evaluation for proposed attack. We determined that most effective way to attack GOST cipher is to set up faults in some fixed positions. In this case the guaranteed recovery of the last round key needs 10-20 faults on 27th encryption round. Furthermore, the obtained statistical data can be reused in the attack on other round keys ue to long-range positions of faults.

We also examined some possible ways to increase the efficiency of proposed attacks with additional information. We show that the using of locations, partially affected with fault, allows to recover some of round key tetrads or to severely decrease a number of potential candidates. At the same time, an empirically found data on distribution of recognition functions, used in attack, can increase efficiency in theory, but we show that it does not give us an expected improvement in practice.

Dovgan О.D., PhD in law, senior researcher, Scientific and Research Institute of Informatics and Law of the National Academy of Legal Sciences of Ukraine


The article considers the legal basis of the formation and development of information security ensuring system of Ukraine. The attention is focused on the possibility based on theoretical developments and practical data to form an adequate system of monitoring and management of threats and dangers in the information sector and also the development of an effective information security ensuring system and its components, including definition of objects and subjects of information security and legal bases of their activities and as a result – building a model of information security.

Today, the system works mostly to counteract threats, ie for passive component, although in our opinion with regard to EU countries, information security must be built on the model of strategic thinking: taking measures to protect the purposes of maintenance and ensuring safety based on the principles of democracy, human rights, secure internet and more.

Model of random position faults demands much more statistical data and does not allow a guaranteed full recovery of all tetrads of round keys, but recovering single tetrads in this model is satisfactory. Acquired experimental data can be used for boundary conditions evaluation for proposed attack. We determined that most effective way to attack GOST cipher is to set up faults in some fixed positions. In this case the guaranteed recovery of the last round key needs 10-20 faults on 27th encryption round. Furthermore, the obtained statistical data can be reused in the attack on other round keys ue to long-range positions of faults.

All this requires legislative consolidation as soon as possible because in the normative act there will be determined single conceptual and categorical apparatus, state information security policy, information security objects and subjects, legal-area of agencies involved in information security ensuring, mechanisms for coordinating their activities to respond to challenges and threats to national security in the information sphere, consolidation order of legal relations of the state security structures with other bodies and agencies assigned by law to the subjects of national security of Ukraine and others.

Slyusarchuk I. V., Doctor of Laws, Professor of the Special Chair of National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine
Pіchak N. Y., ., cadet of National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine


The article reveals the features of Russian information war against Ukraine in the context of events on the temporarily occupied territories (Autonomous Republic of Crimea, a part of Donetsk and Lugansk regions); spheres of influence of the Russian information war of Russia (foreign policy, national security, military, internal policy, economic, social and humanitarian); methods (propaganda, agitation, biased information, half-truth, outright lie) and means (Internet, TV, radio, print media, film production, books), which are used; the aspects of international cooperation; issues of improvement of counteracting to information war of the neighboring state. It is pointed out that analysis of certain features of information war which is waged by Russia on our state indicates that this information war is planned, systematic and coordinated at the highest state level.

It is noted that the main goal of open Russian information war against Ukraine is not only possessing certain territories, but seizing their residents’ consciousness. Russian propaganda by means of spreading misinformation or biased presentation of comments is seeking to discredit the new government and all the Ukrainian people as well as spread panic, create such situation that would tactically and strategically ensure the establishment of the «Russian World» concept. False information about events in our country, broadcast by a range of Russian TV channels, aimed at discreditation of Ukraine, incitement of ethnic hostility, appeals to hatred, violation of sovereignty and territorial integrity, establishing the supremacy of one nation over the others.

An approach to solve the problem of determining the amount of investment into the system of information protection, which is based on study of the model of information risks is offered. The formation of its structure and parameters is based on the use of information concerning the actual mechanisms of the development and implementation of information threats, in particular, on economical and value model, which is used to estimate the probability of successful realization of the attack on information system vulnerability.

The paper emphasizes that the Russian information war against Ukraine is a real threat to national interests of our state. In order to ensure effective information security of Ukraine it is very essential to understand the nature and features of such war, spheres of its influence, methods and means of realization as well as issues of international cooperation and possible means of combating that allows to react flexibly and promptly.

Solodka O.M., PhD in law, leading scientific researcher, National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine


The article based on analysis of domestic and international legal practice and research peculiarities of scientific and legal approaches » studies the concept of «information sovereignty.

In view of this study, it can be argued that the issues of information sovereignty update under modern conditions of the information society accelerated development.

Thus, the analysis of legal regulation of the issues of information sovereignty in national legislation indicates significant gaps, making it difficult further development and improvement of information legislation, formation and development of information society. Foreign practice indicates diversified approaches to legal regulation of the given issue, due to various kinds of factors – the legal system and state-legal mode types, the level of information technological development of the country and so on.

The scientific debate on this issue has been going on long enough and now mainly consists of the following:
– the necessity of information sovereignty allocation as a separate species of sovereignty;
– the interpretation of information sovereignty as an absolute control in the information sphere, the mechanism of information and national security ensuring in general, the principle of jurisdiction definition in the international justice.

Chekhovska M. М., Doctor of Economics, associate professor, the head of the chair, National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine


The article examines the prospects of realization of strategic communications. principles in Ukraine. Actual the theme of strategic communications became after annexation of Autonomous Republic of Crimea by Russian Federation and armed aggression on the east of Ukraine. Hybrid war of Russian Federation against Ukraine educed defecting forming of effective mechanisms of exchange by information, coordination of actions, systems of making decision, necessary under the conditions of crisis situation. Exactly strategic communications are called to perfect the process of exchange information, to set effective communicative politics.

Complex problem, related to the necessity of organization and improvement of the process of information exchange that is firstly based on partner cooperation, including the adjustment of effective feedback, it exists not only in interdepartmental communication, it is inherent to the concrete subjects as well. Having regard to the abovementioned, the realization of measures on adjusting effective communicative politics must take place both in horizontal and in vertical forms.

Development of general vision and common strategy of actions must consist of the plane of the collective discussion of particular problem, based on the openness, creativity, multi-variant approach. Among technologies of developing general approaches in the decision of the controversial issue it is possible to mention realization of the so-called «brain storms», in particular, in the forms of seminars, forums or round table. The terms of realization of the indicated measures must be a representative office of all interested subjects of the security and defense sector, public organizations, as well as periodicity and effectiveness of meetings.

Investigating the problems of establishment and conduct of hybrid wars, the author underlines the necessity of introduction of the strategic communications mechanism in the system of security and defense sector subjects of Ukraine . The article reveals that one of the elements of realization of strategic communications is the use of strategic narratives. The author describes approaches to the creation of the strategic narratives system for the needs of the security and defense sector of Ukraine.

Shlapachenko V. M., PhD in law, senior researcher, National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine
Makarenko V. V., PhD in law, senior researcher, National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine


Considering state secrets threats as the factors influencing information sphere of the state security it is obvious that their levels of danger differ significantly.

Unlike probable possibility of getting information constituting state secrets by foreigners (or other undesirable respondents) as a result of its disclosure or loss, intelligence (espionage) provides selective, systematic, and under certain conditions – a systematic and guaranteed obtaining of classified information. Besides, if the effective application of operational and preventive measures can significantly reduce the threat of information leakage by these losses and disclosure, the use of these measures as counter espionage activity gives significantly less effect and is clearly insufficient.

Therefore, we can say that the intelligence activities aimed at obtaining information constituting a state secret – espionage – is the most dangerous kind of leakage of information constituting a state secret, and is the greatest threat to their protection.

Blagodarniy A. N., senior researcher, PhD in law, associate professor of Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine
Shtelmah O. V., cadet of National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine


The main sources of information (television, the Internet, press, news agencies) help to form public opinion, influence patriotic spirit of citizens and as a result are the most effective handling aids and dissemination of their ideas and beliefs, advocacy work and aggression within the general public.

The information aggression is an essential part of the «hybrid war». «Hybrid concept» is not an official one and there is no definition for such type of warfare in international legal papers. According to scientists, the «hybrid war» is the complex of traditional war conducting ways involving armed non-state actors. The essential component of the «hybrid war» is an influence on the information sphere of society, in other words, revealing of information aggression to the country that is the object of the «hybrid war».

The information aggression can be determined as illegal actions by one of the parties in the information sphere the purpose of which is to cause a significant damage to the opposing side. The aim is to influence not only the people’s consciousness but also their unconsciousness in order to change public opinion in their own interests among both targeted nation and aggressor-nation.

According to the «hybrid war» strategy and the features and methods of information aggression there are such aspects of counteraction: the monitorship of media scene; prohibition of armed non-state actors formation; enhancing the authority of government and army in the country; effective and successful information policy.

Hryshchenko I. V., postgraduate student of National Academy of the Security Service of Ukrain


In the history of state secret in Ukraine, we have identified a few basic steps. The first phase accounted for the period XIX – early XX century. It finished in 1917 with the collapse of the Russian Empire. The first measures, which were aimed at protecting classified information (development of the legal framework and putting this issue to the competence of the authorities) were marked. However, the lack of special departments led to the fact that all actions were chaotic and did not provide effective protection of state secrets.

The second phase accounted for the period of national liberation movements 1917–21, because at that time Ukraine became a subject of international relations and took part in negotiations, concluded agreements, which were aimed at protecting statehood and territorial integrity. However, as Ukrainian states (Central Rada, Hetmanate, and Directory) existed briefly and in a state of permanent war, they are not able to develop the necessary legal framework to establish an effective system of protection of classified information.

The beginning of the third stage of forming the system of state secret in Ukraine coincided with the formation of the Soviet Union, accounting for 20–30 years of the XX century. Soviet State had external threats and internal opposition. That’s why, they made a national security agencies, that would be involved in the preservation of classified information. Soviet system of protection of classified material changed during the Second World War and 60-th years, which was associated with the activation of external threats.

The fourth period of formation of the system of state secret in Ukraine is covering the period of independence. The beginning of this system accounted for 1992-93: work was carried out in two directions – creation of special bodies and development of the regulatory framework.

Ukrainian government inherited the system of state secret from the Soviet Union, but since independence accumulated considerable experience in the creation and development of special legislation that properly regulates relations in the field of classified information.

Sidak V. S., Correspoding Member of the National Academy of Pedagogical Sciences of Ukraine, PhD of Historical Sciences, Professor, chief research associate SOC NA SSU


The historical method made it possible to investigate the state of the usage of domestic and international experience of the counter to hostile information and propaganda actions by governmental institutions (the armed forces, security services, media, etc.) in the current situation of military and information aggression of the Russian Federation against Ukraine.

The occurrence, formation and development of processes and events in chronological order aimed at identification of internal and external connections, patterns and contradictions have been analyzed. Methods of analysis and comparison made it possible to see the effectiveness of the system of countering to information aggression in different historical periods and allowed to reason, what should be used from that experience in the current situation.

It has been found that wide domestic and world historical experience of the counter to information aggression can be creatively used by the relevant structures of our country in current conflict with the Russian Federation. As for today, this experience is used superficially, without creative approach. A lot of opportunities remain unused.

The implementation of this study has been described according to three directions: a) information and psychological influence on the enemy and his environment (the population of the occupied territories); b) military and patriotic upbringing of soldiers and officers of defense agencies of our country, including an increase of their morale; c) the deep and wide-ranging anti-propaganda activities against the information aggressor in order to neutralize his efforts against the population of our country.

On the basis of improved research methodology of historical aspects of the counter to information aggression practical recommendations have been made. These recommendations can be used as scientific basis for projections, strategies and programs on ensuring the country’s information space.

Bova A. A., Candidate of Sociological Sciences, Senior Researcher, Head of the Research Department of the State Research Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine.


The article considers problems of forecasting crimes under current conditions in Ukraine which lie in the prompt change in a state of social and economic situation, latency of social processes, incomplete reliability of data and uncertainty of the theory. The results of forecasting the rate of homicides depending on change of an average salary based on the Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) and polynomial neural networks are presented. Thus statistical data of Public service of statistics of Ukraine and the Prosecutor General’s Office of Ukraine for 1985–2014 are used. The conclusion about probable decrease in quantity of the registered obvious premeditated murders in 2015 is drawn.

The family of algorithms of GMDH solves the problems of regression, classification, forecasting temporary ranks (by autoregression model, curve fitting or factor modeling for multivariate time series), a choice of potential exogenous and endogenous variables, necessary length of a number of dynamics for a certain quantity of variables. Self-organizing models are used either on selections of small samples (short time series), or on big data sets, at small or very large number of independent variables, on noisy or incomplete data, in the presence of supervision, sharply allocated. The result of algorithms work is near optimum, according to the accuracy and stability of the results on new data, mathematical decision in the form of a polynomial, including polynoms of low degrees and their interaction.The analysis of data was carried out in the programs KnowledgeMiner, GMDH Shell, NeuroShell 2, DTREG. .

Klymchuk O. О., Head of Information Security Chair, National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine, PhD, Associate Professor
Tkachuk N. А., Analyst of the Department of Information Security, Security Service of Ukraine, Postgraduate Student of National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine


Analysis of cyber security legislation and organizational measures aimed at developing effective cyber security systems of leading countries suggests that key world players improve their cyber defense capability in accordance with the transformation of current cyber threats.

Recently the forms, entities and negative effects of major cyber threats underwent serious changes. Cyber attacks became more complex and sophisticated, their consequences threaten key national interests, and their organizers or sponsors more often turn to be special services of foreign states or terrorist organizations.

The need for implementing effective measures to counter current cyber threats on national level leads to increasing role of special services and law enforcement agencies which have counter-intelligence functions and perform tasks to counteract activity of special services of foreign states and terrorism.

Thus in the USA, Canada, Austria, Germany, Romania, Poland and other countries the key role in national cyber security systems belongs to special services and law enforcement bodies which execute counter-intelligence functions. More over these entities fulfill interagency coordination through the National Cyber Security Centers and the Computer Emergency Readiness Teams (CERTs), which function under their jurisdiction or as a part of their organizational structure.

In Ukraine the National Computer Emergency Readiness Team (CERT-UA) are functioning as a part of the State Service of Special Communication and Information Protection of Ukraine, which doesn’t have neither law enforcement nor counterintelligence functions and used to be a structural part of the Security Service of Ukraine.

Taking into account international experience and nature of current cyber threats to national security it is advisable to return the State Service of Special Communication and Information Protection of Ukraine to the Security Service of Ukraine that is the only counter-intelligence body of Ukraine whose main function is to protect state security. This will promote creation of efficient national cyber security system of Ukraine able to protect national interests against threats of cyber space.

Chumak V. V., PhD in law, Associate Professor, Member of Parliament of Ukraine


Using a systematic approach, historical and situational method the legal status and competence of the Ukrainian National Rada – «legislative Ukrainian People’s Republic in exile» has been investigated.

The ending of World War II has marked a new important stage of the development of Ukrainian state in exile. It is characterized by the consolidation of efforts of various political groups that reached a compromise on the basis of the idea of European parliamentarism. It resulted in the creation of the Ukrainian National Rada.

The author has studied the competence, powers, functions and activities of the National Council of Ukrainian State Center of Ukrainian People’s Republic in exile and their further changes. It has been proved that the UPR had the status of a standard-setting body of a public organization. The competence of the body, in practice, was much wider.

The practical significance involves supplement of some aspects of the theoretical framework of the history of the state and the law of Ukraine. The results should be used in the study of historical and legal disciplines.

Zhuravel V. I., Doctor of Medicine, professor of National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine
Tkachuk T. Y., associate professor of the Chair of National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine


The article proves that enhancing the efficiency of the system for the protection of classified information is directly proportional to the establishment and implementation of its social component to the activities of government officials and the management of information security.

It is stressed that nowadays it is impossible to imagine the activity of any information security structure outside the systems, such as organizations, which are created and operate due to the management. Besides, the implementation of information security management is revealed in innovation, investment and outright marketing activity of organization, its business and political marketing. This allows to avoid financial turmoil in the market place and create real background to overcome possible difficulties in the future.

It’s grounded that due to social component of information security management the policy, tactics and behavior of business management concerning the incorporation of direct and backward links between governance and society are formed.

The businesses management experience in Japan and the USA is analyzed. This allowed developing practical recommendations for domestic experience. In particular, it concerns the development of mechanisms to motivate workers to protect commercial secrets, and improvement of professional ethics. It is also advisable to include to extremely important mechanism of interaction between society and management the moral and ethical aspects of the service and professional relations and cooperation, based on partnership, in the sphere of protection of classified information.

It is proved that the relationship between society and management in general, and management of classified information system, in particular, is highly variable and constantly changeable.

Knyazev S. O., PhD in law, senior researcher, professor of the Chair of National Academy of the Security Service of Ukraine


On the basis of the analysis of applicable regulations, scientific achievements the author defines the current trends of information classification as service information and singles out a number of related issues which require specific legal regulation.

It is noted that the subjective interpretation of existing standards does not promote a common understanding of procedures of information classification as service information by the management. As a result, there is a significant amount of remarks and deficiencies to which much attention is paid by human rights organizations on the analysis of service information lists of various public authorities, local governments, other government entities, including delegated powers.

In order to streamline regulatory procedures for classifying information as service, the author of the article proposed the consolidation of a number of appropriate conceptual framework and provided general guidelines for their implementation, including:

Defining basic categorical apparatus in the use of service information («service information», «service information protection», «referring to the category of service information», «socially necessary information», «information with restricted access», etc.);

streamlining procedures of classifying information as service (creating a typical nationwide list of service information, calculating damage from service information disclosure, the definition of socially relevant information criteria, etc.);

determining the terms and procedure for reviewing service information;

ensuring the implementation of effective mechanisms for monitoring its using etc.

Kravchenko O. M., Post-graduate Student of the Administrative, Financial and Economic Law Department of the Academy of Labor, Social Relations and Tourism


This article explores current issues of current threats to a trade secret. The variety of potential threats to a trade secret in modern society was analyzed. The ways of improving the protection of a trade secret are determined. The purpose of the protection of a trade secret can only be achieved by creating a system of information protection on the basis of an integrated approach.

The problem of information security is a combination of closely related sub-problems in the fields of law, management, technical tools, programming and mathematics. Obviously, an effective system of protection can be created by combining the efforts of different specialists. One of the central tasks of designing protection systems consists in the rational allocation of available human, material and other resources.

As for the protection of a trade secret you should conclude nondisclosure agreements with employees and third parties who may have access to it, in advance providing effective sanctions for the breach of obligations regarding the storage of relevant information, in addition to non-legal protection measures (technical, organizational, etc).

Through the strengthening of economic competition under the conditions of development of market relations in Ukraine a trade secret of business entities and its protection becomes the first priority. The development of economic competition, the need to achieve advantages in the market put before the business entities the task of protecting trade secrets through legal means.

This article is based on a detailed analysis of current threats to a trade secret.

The main aim of this article is to define the most relevant current threats to a trade secret and to counteract them.

All commercial objects must build its information security system on the conceptual basis, considering the purpose of the object, its size, the accommodation, nature of business, financial capabilities, etc. The development of the protection concept must be based on a detailed analysis of the activities of business structures and complex security requirements. Especially if the business objects use in their activity means of information.

Taking into consideration the diversity of potential threats to information in a data processing system, the complexity of structure and functions, as well as human involvement in the process of information processing, the purpose of the protection of a trade secret can only be achieved by creating a system of information protection on the basis of an integrated approach. And this system must be created by the assessment of the security threats to the operation of a business object, and based on the results of the analysis, the decision on construction of the whole system of protection of a trade secret is made.

Thus we can conclude that the staff of the company is the major source of entrepreneurial activity, on the one hand, some employees for various reasons could generate large losses and even business bankruptcy, on the other hand. Therefore, organizational and administrative measures to protect a trade secret must be combined with social and psychological measures. Among the social and psychological measures of protection two main areas can be singled out: firstly, proper selection and placement and, secondly, the use of material and moral incentives.


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